Art Protest Chapter Discussion: Art & Design Answers 2021

Art Protest Chapter Discussion: Art & Design Answers 2021

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Art Protest Chapter Discussion

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Chapter 10
Social Protest/Affirmation
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned,
copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Learning Objectives
1. Describe how different artists choose to protest oppression through their medium.
2. Contrast how various artists have depicted war during different time periods, art
movements, and cultures.
3. Explain why visual imagery is a powerful tool for addressing discrimination of all
kinds.
4. Given examples of artworks that protest injustice, explain how and what these
works communicate about the oppressed.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Map 6
Map 6 Patterns of World Trade.
Courtesy of Replogle Globes,
Inc., Broadview, IL.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Introduction
? Many artists protest injustice via their artwork.
? They identify villains, honor heroes, promote causes with emotional and visual
impact.
? Protest art is a form of affirmation based on respect for human dignity and the belief
that change is possible.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.1 (1 of 2)
10.1 Cildo Meireles. Insertions into
Ideological Circuits: Coca-Cola Project,
Brazil, 1970. Screen print on CocaCola bottles.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.1 (2 of 2)
? This 1970 work was created as a response to Brazil?s military government, which
supported itself by ?selling? the country to foreign investors, including the U.S.,
while the environment and cultures of indigenous peoples were being destroyed.
? The government repressed art that was openly critical of it.
? Meireles took empty Coca-Cola bottles, screen-printed subversive messages on
them, and returned them for refilling.
? Using Coca-Cola bottles as vehicles for political messages was clever because:
? Coca-Cola is everywhere.
? there is an existing system of reusing bottles.
? Coca-Cola is a symbol for U.S. culture.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.2 (1 of 2)
10.2 Coatlicue, Aztec, Tenochtitl?n,
Mexico, c. 1487?1520. Andesite,
11? 6? high. Museo Nacional de
Antropolog?a, Mexico City.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.2 (2 of 2)
? In 1519, the Spaniards conquered the Aztecs and attempted to wipe out their
culture.
? Spain also conquered the Incas of Peru and established a colonial empire in the
Americas.
? This colossal freestanding statue is an example of the art style of the Aztecs.
? It depicts a deity who represents sacrificial death as well as potential for new life.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
PROTESTS AGAINST MILITARY ACTION
? For thousands of years, artists depicted war by glorifying the victors and showing
the defeated.
? Much of past art was made for victorious political or religious leaders.
? Warfare was a means to gain power; art was a way to display that power.
? Two-hundred years ago, however, artists began to make art protesting particular
wars and warfare in general.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.3 (1 of 2)
10.3 Francisco Goya. The Executions
of May 3, 1808, Spain, 1814. Oil on
canvas, 104 3/4? x 135 3/4?. Prado,
Madrid.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.3 (2 of 2)
? Painted from sketches the artist made at the actual event, this work protested
Napoleon?s occupational army in 1808 Madrid. Notably:
? it depicts Spaniards facing the firing line.
? the man in white, arms outstretched, is like Christ crucified.
? the soldiers repeated poses and hidden faces are dehumanized.
? barrels of pointed rifles are rigidly organized?a war machine.
? the Spaniards are trembling, praying, or protesting so that the viewer identifies
with their horror.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.4 (1 of 2)
10.4 K?the Kollwitz. The Outbreak
(?Losbruch?), Germany, 1903.
Etching, 20? ? 23 1/4?.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.4 (2 of 2)
? This work depicts an uprising in the 16th-century Peasant War in Germany, the 5th
of 7 prints to show the destructive energy of war.
? Kollwitz shows a woman leading the revolt, breaking stereotypes about women?s
passivity.
? The Outbreak shows:
? peasants grouped at the right.
? on the left, peasants attack their oppressors with crude weapons.
? the dark woman in front as leader, the conscience for the group.
? the woman?s upraised arms incite others to action.
? her bony, twisted hands/arms document the harshness of life.
? stark blacks and whites, conveying the emotional moment.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.5 (1 of 2)
10.5 George Grosz. Fit for Active
Service, Germany, 1918. Pen and ink,
14 1/2? ? 13 1/2?. The Museum of
Modern Art, New York.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.5 (2 of 2)
? Fit for Active Service exposed the German doctors and officers, who sent elderly,
sick, or very young men to fight for Germany near the end of WWI.
? Grosz uses his pen to depict:
? smug, laughing faces of the officers.
? soldiers at attention, their seams lining up with the floor and the window frames,
symbolizing conformity.
? the happy doctor who?s found another body for the front lines.
? factories belching out machinery of war.
? a rounded, detailed skeleton seems the most human.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.6 (1 of 2)
10.6 John Heartfield. Goering the
Executioner, Germany, 1933.
Photomontage cover for AIZ magazine.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.6 (2 of 2)
?
?
?
?
Goering the Executioner is a photomontage combining news photos and drawings.
The subject is Field Marshal Hermann Goering of the Nazi party.
Heartfield depicts Goering as a butcher to warn the public of bloodshed to come.
Heartfield?s Goering effective portrayal includes:
? increasing the thickness of Goering?s neck, emphasizing aggressiveness.
? displaying the burning Reichstag, likely perpetrated by the Nazis.
? black-and-white elements giving an unvarnished, blunt quality.
? a meat cleaver and stained apron, warnings of Nazi bloodshed.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.7 (1 of 2)
10.7 David Alfaro Siqueiros. Echo of a
Scream, Mexico, 1937. Enamel on
wood, 48? ? 36?. Gift of Edward M. M.
Warburg (633.1939). The Museum of
Modern Art, New York, NY.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.7 (2 of 2)
? This work about the Spanish Civil War symbolizes human suffering through the
screaming, pained child sitting amid the debris of modern warfare.
? Siqueiros? symbols:
? screaming, helpless, child amid the destruction of warfare represents humanity.
? the repeated large, detached crying child?s head depicts the pain of unseen
victims.
? dark tones add a somber note to the ugly surroundings.
? urbanization, industrialization, endless piles of waste (the result of progress).
? Siqueiros was a Mexican citizen who fought in Spain against the Fascists and their
Nazi backers.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.8 (1 of 2)
10.8 Robert Motherwell. Elegy to the
Spanish Republic XXXIV, USA, 1953?1954.
Oil on canvas, 80? ? 100?. Albright-Knox Art
Gallery, Buffalo, NY.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.8 (2 of 2)
? Elegy is one of a series of paintings mourning the loss of liberty in Spain after the
Fascist victory.
? Motherwell believed abstraction communicated the struggle between life and death,
freedom and oppression.
? The large size of the painting makes these struggles seem monumental.
? Motherwell was influenced by the Surrealist process called Automatism, which
incorporates intuition, spontaneity, and the accidental.
? His black-and-white forms suggest:
? bull testicles.
? leather berets of the Guardia Civil.
? living ovoid forms crushed by the black bands.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.9 (1 of 2)
10.9 Shomei Tomatsu. Senji
Yamaguchi of Urakami, 1962. Gelatin
silver print, 12 15/16? ? 8 13/16?.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.9 (2 of 2)
? This disturbing photo is one of a series that exposes the mutilation of victims who
survived the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, at the end of WWII.
? Tomatsu?s photo is technically beautiful, with a full range of deep blacks contrasting
with bright light revealing the textures of Senji?s scarred skin.
? Senji?s twisted neck gives us a sense of his lifelong suffering.
? The series documented past horrors and protested U.S. troops stationed in Japan.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.10 (1 of 2)
10.10 Leon Golub. Mercenaries I,
United States, 1976. Acrylic on
canvas, 116? ? 186 1/2?. The
Broad Art Foundation.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.10 (2 of 2)
?
Golub worked from news photos and realistically reported atrocities occurring regularly.
?
Mercenaries I shows two ?guns for hire,? exposing thugs who use force to bolster a
repressive government.
?
In Mercenaries I:
? thick paint has been scraped, surface seems raw.
? victim has no identifying traits.
? flesh looks repulsive on the mercenaries and victim.
? colors are jarring and acidic.
? flattened mercenaries are pushed aggressively to the foreground against a flat
background.
? viewers are dwarfed by the tall painting and share the same perspective as the victim.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
FIGHTING FOR THE OPPRESSED
? Artists who fight for the rights and affirm the values of repressed peoples use
several strategies to make their points forceful:
? beauty
? illustration
? narrative
? humor
? shock
? Most social protest works are designed to affect public consciousness rather than to
prescribe specific changes.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.11 (1 of 2)
10.11 Eug?ne Delacroix. Liberty Leading
the People, France, 1830. Oil on canvas,
approximately 8? 6? ? 10? 8?. Louvre,
Paris.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.11 (2 of 2)
? This painting is an homage to the Paris revolt in 1830.
? In Delacroix?s painting, Liberty is personified as a partially nude woman reminiscent
of a Greek goddess.
? Energized, oblivious to danger, she carries a rifle and the flag of the French
Revolution.
? Delacroix?s work is romantic in its portrayal of fighting as thrilling, dangerous, and
liberating.
? Delacroix?s painting mixes elements of: Realism, Idealism, Romanticism.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.12 (1 of 2)
10.12 Lewis Hine. Leo, 48 Inches
High, 8 Years Old, Picks Up Bobbins
at 15? a Day, United States, 1910.
Photograph, 8 1/2? ? 11?. University
of Maryland Library, College Park,
Maryland.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.12 (2 of 2)
?
?
?
?
A direct way to make social protest art is to illustrate the oppressive situation.
Hine photographed miserable labor conditions and slum housing in the U.S.
He is known for exposing child labor in mines and textile mills.
Hine?s composition emphasizes:
? the large scale of the weaving machines that dwarf the child.
? a very young and apprehensive child.
? gloomy, littered atmosphere.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.13 (1 of 2)
10.13 Ben Shahn. The Passion of
Sacco and Vanzetti, United States,
1931?1932. Tempera on canvas,
84 1/2? ? 48?. The Whitney Museum of
American Art, New York.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.13 (2 of 2)
? This painting tells the story of the unjust conviction and execution of two Italian
immigrants who were active in labor organizations, avoided the WWI draft, and
were political anarchists.
? Many claimed that Sacco and Vanzetti were convicted because of their politics.
? Shahn collapses time, simultaneously showing:
? the courthouse steps.
? the portrait of the judge.
? the faces of Sacco and Vanzetti in their coffins.
? three dour and righteous commissioners who allowed the executions.
? the backing by institutional rigidity.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.14 (1 of 2)
10.14 Jacob Lawrence. No. 36:
During the Truce Toussaint Is
Deceived and Arrested by
LeClerc. LeClerc Led Toussaint to
Believe That He Was Sincere,
Believing That When Toussaint
Was Out of the Way, the Blacks
Would Surrender, United States,
1937?1938. Tempera on paper,
11? ? 19?.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.14 (2 of 2)
? Lawrence recounted the accomplishments, challenges, and oppressions of the
African community uprooted to the Western Hemisphere by slavery.
? This work is one of 41 paintings about a slave who led a successful revolt to abolish
slavery in Haiti.
? In No. 36:
? colors are limited, with black and white punctuation.
? floor tilts up, walls trap the revolter at the intersection of colors.
? black chair reads like prison bars.
? broad sections of yellow and green unify the image, while the detailed center
provides a forceful focal point.
? space, color, and the bright patterns of rugs reveal Cubism influence.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 10.15 (1 of 2)
10.15 Hans Haacke.
MetroMobiltan, 1985. Glass
fiber, fabric, photograph; 140? ?
240? ? 60?. Mus?e National d?Art
Moderne, Centre Georges
Pompidou, Paris.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.15 (2 of 2)
? MetroMobiltan showed that three different phenomena are actually intertwined:
? the oppressive policies of apartheid in South Africa
? the profits of an oil company
? artwork shown at a major museum
? Mobil and many other corporations profited from apartheid in South Africa.
? To counteract negative publicity, Mobil provided major financial backing to the
Metropolitan Museum in NYC to mount an exhibition entitled ?Treasures of Ancient
Nigeria.?
? MetroMobiltan raises awareness of the often-hidden ways that one country?s culture
and economy can profit from an unjust situation.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.16 (1 of 2)
10.16 Edward Kienholz. The State
Hospital (detail), United States, 1966.
Mixed media, 8? ? 12? ? 10?. Moderna
Museet, Stockholm.
Lazzari/Schlesier, Exploring Art, 5th Edition. ? 2016 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or
duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Figure 10.16 (2 of 2)
? Shocking ugliness can be used in service of protest art.
? To protest society?s treatment of people deemed incompetent, Kienholz?s
installation exposes?

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