MICRO 20 East Los Angeles College Microbiology Staphylococcus Aureus Lab Report: Biology Answers 2021

MICRO 20 East Los Angeles College Microbiology Staphylococcus Aureus Lab Report: Biology Answers 2021

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MICRO 20 East Los Angeles College Microbiology Staphylococcus Aureus Lab Report

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HOW TO WRITE AN UNKNOWN LAB REPORT IN MICROBIOLOGY
GENERAL
Unknown reports in microbiology are written in scientific format. Scientific writing is written
differently from other types of writing. The results of the exercise or experiment are what are being
showcased, not the writing. The purpose of scientific writing is not to entertain, but to inform. The
writing should be simple and easy to understand. There is a specific style that must be followed
when writing scientific reports.
Scientific writing is typically written in the passive voice. The pronouns ?I?, ?We? and ?They? are
not typically used.. For example, instead of writing ?I used a TSA agar plate to isolate my
unknown,? it is customary to write, ?A trypticase soy agar (TSA) plate was used to isolate the
unknown.?
It is also customary to write in the past tense for most of the report. This includes the introduction,
the summary, the description of the materials and methods and the results. The present tense is
reserved for the conclusions about the results. See the examples given below.
Some other general rules that should be followed are:
Microbial nomenclature: The name of the bacterium should written and spelled correctly. The name
should be italicized or underlined. Italicized is preferred. For example, Staphylococcus aureus.
The genus is capitalized but the species is not. After the full genus name is given in the paper, it can
be written as S. aureus, but still italicized. This is as long as there in no other genera in the paper
that starts with the same letter.
PARTS TO THE UNKNOWN LAB REPORT
(Note: Other than the title page, the pages of the report must be numbered)
TITLE PAGE
There should always be a title page and should include the following information:
EXAMPLE OF TITLE PAGE
Title should be centered and at the top or in the middle of the page
UNKNOWN LAB REPORT # 1
This information should be centered and at the bottom part of the title page:
UNKNOWN LETTER (OR NUMBER)
YOUR NAME
DATE (the due date)
LAB INSTRUCTOR?S NAME
COURSE NAME
SEMESTER / YEAR
SECTION NUMBER
INTRODUCTION
This section introduces the reader to the study and why the study was done. This should only be a
few sentences long.
Example: ?There are many reasons for knowing the identity of microorganisms. The
reasons range from the knowing the causative agent of a disease in a patient, so as to know how it
can be treated, to knowing the correct microorganism to be used for making certain foods or
antibiotics. This study was done by applying all of the methods that have been learned so far in the
microbiology laboratory class for the identification of an unknown bacterium.?
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This is where the details of the study are listed. Where did the specimen come from, and what
methods were used to identify it? Be specific, but do not re write the lab manual. One way is to
mention the names of the materials used and reference the lab manual for the procedure or method
and then continue to elaborate when necessary. See example 1.
Example 1: ?An unknown labeled as letter G was given out by the lab instructor. The
methods that have been learned thus far for identifying bacteria have been applied to this unknown.
Procedures were followed as stated in the course laboratory manual by De Mers (1), unless
otherwise noted.
The first procedure that needed to be done was to streak the unknown out on a Trypticase Soy Agar
plate, using the T streak method described in the lab manual.. This needed to be done in order to test
the purity of the unknown. After the plates were incubated and grown, the morphology was
observed and recorded and a Gram stain was performed. Quality control bacteria were Gram stained
along with the unknown to make sure that the Gram stain reaction was done correctly . After
determining the Gram reaction, specific biochemical tests were performed. The biochemical tests
were chosen from the unknown identification tables that were in the lab manual. Since unknown G
was determined to be a Gram negative rod, an oxidase test was performed and the organism was
inoculated into a BCP lactose tube. Note all of these tests were performed by the methods listed in
the lab manual by De Mers (1). Table 1 lists the test, purpose, reagents and results. All of the
following tests were performed on this unknown:
1. Oxidase test
2. BCP Lactose
3. Indole
4. H2S
5. Citrate
6. Motility
7. Methyl Red
8. Urea?
Another way is to write out the methods in detail in either a paragraph form or listed. This way is
not necessary for this type of paper, since this is lab report for the identification of an unknown
bacterium and the methods are explained in detail in the lab manual. If there is a procedure that the
instructor added or made changes to, or the student used another procedure not in the course lab
manual, then it should be written out and referenced. See some of the examples of papers
identifying an unknown from the web sited below.
RESULTS
This is where the results are summarized. The method results should be in a table format (see
examples below). This is also where the flow chart showing how you arrived at the answer is stated.
A short paragraph explaining how the results are presented can be included.
Example: Unknown G had the following morphology on a TSA plate: medium sized opaque
cream colored colony. After determining that it was a Gram negative rod, an oxidase test was
performed and it was inoculated into a BCP lactose tube and onto a TSA slant. Table I lists all of the
biochemical tests, their purpose and results. The results are also shown in a flow chart form.
Example: Table 1: Biochemical Test Results
TEST
PURPOSE
Gram stain
To determine the Gram
reaction of the
bacterium
To determine the
presence of
cytochrome c
To determine the
ability of a bacterium
to ferment a specific
carbohydrate
To determine the
ability of an organism
to split indole from
tryptophane
Oxidase test
BCP Lactose
Indole Test
REAGENTS
OBSERVATIONS
RESULTS
Crystal violet,
Iodine, Alcohol,
Safranin
Oxidase paper
Pink rods
None
Color change
from purple to
yellow
Gram
negative
rods
Positive
oxidase
test
Positive
lactose
fermenter
Kovac?s added to
1 ml of tryptone
broth
Red Ring at top
of broth
Positive
indole test
Purple / black
color change
ETC.
Another type of table: Table 1: Physiological and Biochemical Results
TEST
REAGENTS OR
MEDIA
TEMP
OBSERVATIONS
RESULTS
INTERPRETATIONS
Citrate
Citrate slant
(green)
350C
Color changed from
green to blue
Positive
MRVP
350C
After adding
methyl red to one
ml, color changed
from light yellow to
a darker yellow
Negative
Organism is able to
utilize citrate as a
carbon source
Organism is not able
to produce large
amounts of acid from
glucose fermentation
Methyl
Red
FLOWCHART
UNKNOWN G
Gram stain
Gram negative Rod
Oxidase test (positive)
Positive
Citrobacter freundii
Enterobacter aerogenes
Escherichia coli
Klebsiella oxytoca
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pseudomonas aureofaciens
Negative
Proteus vulgaris
Proteus mirabilis
Serratia marcescens
Morganella morganii
Indole test ( Positive)
Positive
Escherichia coli
Klebsiella oxytoca
Negative
Citrobacter freundii
Enterobacter aerogenes
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Citrate Test (negative)
Positive
Klebsiella oxytoca
Negative
Escherichia coli
Motility Test (positive)
Escherichia coli
Methyl Red Test (positive)
Escherichia coli
Unknown B ? Escherichia coli
DISCUSSION / CONCLUSION
This section interprets the meaning of the results. The following questions should be answered here:
How did the test result lead to identification? Was it the correct identification? If not, why not. What
problems were encountered? This is also where the background information on the organism
(environment/pathogenicity) that was identified is mentioned.
Example of a discussion: After several differential tests, it was concluded that unknown G was
Escherichia coli. After performing the Gram stain to determine that the unknown was a Gram negative rod,
the organism was grown on a TSA slant for use in inoculating the rest of the biochemical tests. All of the
biochemical tests worked well except for the indole test. It gave a false negative result at first. This was
determined since it was inconsistent with the rest of the result. The TA suggested that the test be repeated and
it was repeated. The repeated test gave a positive result, consistent with the other data. Therefore it was
concluded that the unknown was Escherichia coli. THIS CAN BE ELABORATED MORE FOR EACH
TEST.
E. coli is in the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is typically found in the human intestines, as well as
other animals. It can cause disease in the right host. THE REST OF THIS INFORMATION SHOULD BE
RESEARCHED FROM THE TEXTBOOK, INTERNET OR OTHER MICROBIOLOGY RESOURCES.
REFERENCES:
Note: the minimum number of references is three, the lab manual, textbook and atlas. More can be
used. Correct reference format must be used. References should be numbered and the number
added to the report when necessary. See example 1 under materials and methods. Spelling of the
authors of the references must be correct.
Example:
1.
De Mers, Marlene. Fundamentals of Microbiology Laboratory Manual, 4 th edition. San
Diego: Montezuma publishing, 2004
2. Tortora, Funk, Case,
etc??..
3. Leboffe, Michael, etc???
4. https://oregonstate.edu/dept/microbiology/writingmanual/WIC_WritingManual.pdf
SOME ADDITIONAL POINTS:
1. Attach both the working worksheet and the final worksheet
2. Attach the unknown identification table that was used for identifying the unknown with the
marks used to help narrow down results.
3. Number the pages
4. Use a spell checker
5. Check out the following book from the library: ?Successful Lab Reports? a manual for science
students by Christopher S. Lobban and Maria Schefter.
6. Use the comments from the instructor for the first report to write the second report even better.
7. Check out the following PDF file on the web:
https://oregonstate.edu/dept/microbiology/writingmanual/WIC_WritingManual.pdf
Identification Scheme for Selected Gram Positive Bacteria
Cocci
Rods
Catalase test
Spore stain
Streptococcus spp.
+
Micrococcus spp.
Staphylococcus spp.
M. luteus
Bacillus spp.
Clostridium spp.
Blood agar plate
Mannitol-salt agar plate
Voges-Proskauer test
-, ?
Spore-forming rods
+, +
+, ?
S. aureus
S. epidermidis
?-hemolytic
?-hemolytic
Continue
tests for
other
Lancefield
groups
Continue
tests for
other
Lancefield
groups
?-hemolytic
Nutrient agar slant
Aerobic incubation
E. faecalis
+
Bacillus spp.
Clostridium spp.
Starch agar plate
Voges-Proskauer
+,+
B. subtilis
+,B. megaterium
-, B. lactosporus
Nonspore-forming rods
Acid-fast stain
+
Mycobacterium spp.
?
Lactobacillus spp.
Corynebacterium spp.
Unknown Report Instructions and Rubric
IMPORTANT: INCLUDE THIS GRADING SHEET AND YOUR DATA TABLE TO THE
BACK OF YOUR REPORT
Your unknown report must be written in APA format and with Times New Roman 12point font. It must be double spaced and have 1 inch margins all around. It must be 4-5
pages in length (excluding tables, title page, this grading sheet, data table, and a
reference page). It must include a title page that states the title of your report, the name
and # of your unknown, the date, and your name. Include page numbers and a header
with your title on each page. You must have at least five references, three of which
cannot be Bergey?s, the lab manual, or the lecture book. Your references must be listed
on a reference page in the correct APA format. You must refer to all of your references
in the body of the report (?in-text? citations) using correct APA formatting.
APA formatting: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01
Your report is worth 70 points and will be graded using the following rubric:
TITLE PAGE
Part I
INTRODUCTION
____/5
/5
? Purpose of laboratory experiments
? Unknown #
? Unknown identity
Part II
MATERIALS AND METHODS
/5
-LISTING OF TESTS PERFORMED
-CORRECT SEQUENCE OF TESTS PERFORMED
TABLE
-TABLE INCLUDED
Part III
BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS
?
1
Analysis and explanation of results
Test Tables, Test Results, Interpretations
BIO205 Unknown Report Instructions and Rubric
/10
Part IV
DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION
/15
Interpretation of Test Results
/Flow Charts
REFERENCE PAGE
Part V
?
?
Appropriate number of references
(three besides Bergey?s Manual, lab
manual, and text book; at least five
total)
Correct format
OVERALL
?
/5
/5
Data sheet included and filled out completely
Grading sheet included
Written in APA style
Grammar, spelling, and punctuation
Appropriate length (3 pages not
including title, reference, or data table)
Organization
Total (%)
/100
TOTAL (prorated)
/50
2
BIO205 Unknown Report Instructions and Rubric
Clinical Unknown
Isolate #3
Dr. Souki
MICRO 20
East Los Angeles College
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Instruc(ons
Samples from an ill paDent were collected by a physician for tesDng. A
bacterial infecDon is suspected. Using the unknown ?owcharts, a
microbiologist conducted various tests to determine the idenDty of the
unknown bacterial isolate. The resulDng data is included in this
presentaDon.
IdenDfy each test.
Referring to the unknown ?owcharts, put the tests in the correct order,
as they would be inoculated and observed in a clinical lab over a few
days.
Write a purpose, method, data, analysis, and conclusion for each test. Be
sure to log the data correctly, as we have done during the course. In
your report, there should be one page for each test. In the data secDon,
be sure to include a picture of the data.
At the end of your report, include an overall data sheet lisDng all of the
data and an overall conclusion, where you idenDfy the genus and species
of the isolate based on the data.
The report must be wriRen as a Word document. With 12 point, Times
New Roman font, double-spaced. The margins must be 1-inch on all
sides.
Number each page on the boRom right hand corner.
Instruc(ons
8. Include a cover sheet that is formaRed as
follows:
Clinical Unknown Report
Last Name, First Name
Isolate #: _____
Date SubmiRed
MICRO 20
East Los Angeles College
Do not include a page number on the cover sheet.
Unknown Isolate
Nega(ve Control
Unknown
Isolate
NegaDve
Control

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