Ashford University Shifts Between Behavioral & Traditional Economics Discussion: Business & Finance Answers 2021

Ashford University Shifts Between Behavioral & Traditional Economics Discussion: Business & Finance Answers 2021

Ashford University Shifts Between Behavioral & Traditional Economics Discussion: Business & Finance Answers 2021

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Ashford University Shifts Between Behavioral & Traditional Economics Discussion

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Assignment 4 – Identify a Problem Statement
The first step in applying the scientific method is identifying a problem. For this assignment,
review the instructional materials for identifying a problem statement and provide a brief (1page) description of background relating to a particular research problem (or need). An actual
problem should be indicated with accompanying evidence.
The paper should be organized based on the headings below and should include the following
APA headings (Level 2):
The Research Problem
This is an area of conflict, concern, or controversy (a gap between what is wanted and what is
observed). Include the most relevant reference that supports the claim.
Background and Justification
The evidence from the literature and experience showing the problem exists and the relevance.
Include at least two references.
Feasibility
Include a brief discussion that details the area of need in relation to the problem and the
deficiency or lack of evidence in the literature.
Audience
Discuss who is affected and who benefits.
Assignment 4: Evaluation Form
Range: 4 (Good) – 0 (Inadequate)
Characteristics Assessed
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Research Problem
Background/Justification
Feasibility
Audience
APA format and style
4
4
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
Total Points Earned: ____ / 20 Points Possible
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
Name
Title
The Research Problem
Background and Justification
Feasibility
Audience
References
Reading and
Understanding
Research 3rd edition
2
Reading and
Understanding
Research 3rd edition
Lawrence F. Locke
The University of Massachusetts at Amherst
Stephen J. Silverman
Teachers College, Columbia University
Waneen Wyrick Spirduso
The University of Texas at Austin
3
Copyright © 2010 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Locke, Lawrence F.
Reading and understanding research/Lawrence F. Locke, Stephen J. Silverman, Waneen Wyrick Spirduso.—3rd ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-7574-2 (pbk.)
1. Research. 2. Research—Methodology. 3. Reading. I. Silverman, Stephen J. II. Spirduso, Waneen Wyrick. III. Title.
Q180.A1L63 2010001.
4’2—dc22
2009007953
Printed on acid-free paper
09 10 11 12 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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4
BRIEF CONTENTS
Preface
About the Authors
PART I. THE NATURE AND USES OF RESEARCH REPORTS
1. The Research Report
2. When to Believe What You Read: The Sources of Credibility
3. How to Select and Read Research Reports
4. The Use, Misuse, and Misunderstanding of Research
5. Types of Research: An Overview of Variety
PART II. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
6. Quantitative Research Designs
7. Staying Organized When Reading a Quantitative Report
8. Explaining as a Tool for Learning to Read Reports
9. Reading Reports of Quantitative Research—Critically: Things to Notice and Questions to Ask 141
PART III. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
10. The Paradigms for Qualitative Research
11. Staying Organized When Reading a Qualitative Report
12. Reading Reports of Qualitative Research—Critically: Things the Reader Should Expect
PART IV. READING RESEARCH REVIEWS
13. Staying Organized When Reading Research Reviews
Appendix A: Annotated Bibliography of Supplementary References
Appendix B: Statistics: A Beginner’s Guide
References
Name Index
Subject Index
5
6
DETAILED CONTENTS
Preface
About the Authors
PART I. THE NATURE AND USES OF RESEARCH REPORTS
1. The Research Report
Finding Valuables in Research Reports
Reading Reports: When to Do It
Reading Research: When to Consider Using Alternative Sources
Reading Research: What Can You Find Besides Findings?
What Is a Research Report?
Research Reports: A Middle-Ground Definition
What Fits Under the Umbrella?
About Publications
Criterial Characteristics: What Has to Be in a Report?
2. When to Believe What You Read: The Sources of Credibility
Who Does Research, and Where Do They Do It?
Who Does Research?
Where Do Researchers Do Their Work?
Believing What You Read in Research: The Foundations of Trust
The Review Process for Presenting and Publishing Research
Journal Selectivity
Reputation of the Author(s)
Source of Funding
Sponsorship by a Research or Professional Organization
Reasons to Suspend Trust in a Research Report
Technical Problems
Sampling
Lack of Replication
Conflicts
Carelessness
Errors and Poor Scholarship
Summary
Can Any Research Report Be Perfect?
3. How to Select and Read Research Reports
7
Getting Started: Selecting Research Reports
Looking for the Right Read
Reading Research Cooperatively
How to Read Research Reports
Researchers as Writers: Style and Substance
Researchers as Workers: The Matter of Respect
The Reader as Consumer: Burdens to Leave Behind
Reading Research as Puzzle Solving
Communication in Reports: It Takes Two to Tango
Graphic Tools: Most Travelers Need a Map
On Getting Hung Up: Do Not Get Stuck on the Wrong Things
The Limits of Respect: Healthy Skepticism
4. The Use, Misuse, and Misunderstanding of Research
Problems With Reports
Problems With Research
Summary
Note
5. Types of Research: An Overview of Variety
Generic Issues in Research
Types of Research
PART II. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
6. Quantitative Research Designs
Statistics in Quantitative Research
Types of Quantitative Research
Descriptive Research
Correlational Research
Quasi-experimental/Experimental Research
Single-Subject Research
Meta-analysis
7. Staying Organized When Reading a Quantitative Report
Reading and Recording From Quantitative Research Reports
Doing the 12-Step
Example of a Completed Quantitative 12-Step Form With Flowcharts
8. Explaining as a Tool for Learning to Read Reports
Teaching Is the Best Way to Learn
How to Give an Explanation: Rules of the Game
Formats for the Explanation: Pairs, Teams, and Solos
How to Give an Explanation: Handy Hints From Hard Experience
8
The Bad Explanation: Five Fatal Flaws
The Purpose of Explaining
9. Reading Reports of Quantitative Research—Critically: Things to Notice and Questions to Ask
Introduction: The Five Basic Questions
What Is the Report About?
How Does the Study Fit Into What Is Already Known?
How Was the Study Done?
What Was Found?
What Do the Results Mean?
Summary
PART III. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
10. The Paradigms for Qualitative Research
Interpretive Research
Generic Studies
Phenomenological Studies
Ethnographic Studies
Grounded Theory Studies
Critical Research
Mixed Methods Research
Concluding Comments About Types of Research
11. Staying Organized When Reading a Qualitative Report
Identifying Qualitative Research Reports
A 12-Step Guide for Understanding Qualitative Research Reports
Example of a Completed Qualitative 12-Step Form With Flowcharts
12. Reading Reports of Qualitative Research—Critically: Things the Reader Should Expect
Expectations for Qualitative Reports: The Generic and General Standards
Expectations for Qualitative Reports: The Specific and Individual Standards
Expectations for Qualitative Studies: A Critical Look Behind the Report
The Machinery of Time
The Machinery of Subjectivity
The Machinery of What Does Not Fit
The Machinery of Relationships
The Machinery of Context
PART IV. READING RESEARCH REVIEWS
13. Staying Organized When Reading Research Reviews
A 12-Step Map for Reading Reviews
Navigating Through Reviews With Your 12-Step Map
9
Example of a Completed 12-Step Form for Reading Research Reviews
Concluding Remarks
Appendix A: Annotated Bibliography of Supplementary References
Appendix B: Statistics: A Beginner’s Guide
Descriptive Statistics
Statistical Probability
Differences Between Means
Association Statistics and Correlation
Closing Comments
References
Name Index
Subject Index
10
PREFACE
T
his book is about how to read research reports. It was written to serve people who have a wide variety
of backgrounds and interests. We had in mind all of those who, in attempting to read reports, have
been discouraged by the formidable nature of what they found. Also considered were people who have
never tried to access the ideas and information found in reports but who now believe that it might be useful or
interesting to do so. Finally, we were very much mindful of the beginners, whom we know best.
Undergraduate and graduate students at colleges and universities across the nation are a large captive audience
that must learn how to navigate through the mysteries of reports—whether or not doing so seems useful and
interesting!
Given such diversity among our potential readers, the book was designed to be used either as a stand-alone
tutorial, resembling a self-help guide for individuals, or as a supplement to instruction and practice within the
format of a traditional university or college research course. For the former, we have provided lists of other
resources that will help replace the supports ordinarily provided by an instructor and fellow students. For the
latter, we have suggested activities that take maximum advantage of the opportunity to learn and to practice in
a group setting. Finally, for both kinds of users, we have shared a number of tools (recording forms, exercises,
checklists, and so on) that our own students have found helpful.
That final point signals something that is characteristic of the way this book has been written. This is a
distinctly personal product. It reflects the beliefs and experiences of three authors whose careers have engaged
them in performing, teaching, writing, directing, and reading research—to this very day. It is our work,
sometimes our play, and always our passion. We intend to be fully present in the pages of this book, both as
advisors to your efforts and as commentators on what you are learning. In consequence, the words we and you
appear without apology on almost every page.
At the outset, it is reasonable for you to wonder how much we have presumed our readers will bring to the
book—and the many tasks it requires. About that we can give a quick and simple answer. Nothing is required
in terms of technical vocabulary, general scientific and mathematical knowledge, or particular background in
the tools of research (most notably, statistics) that would not be possessed by a typical high school graduate.
It is true that college-level experiences in any or all of these areas would allow you to move faster (and
more easily) through the chapters—and probably push more quickly beyond the introductory-level skills that
are the objective here. Nevertheless, this is a book for beginners. Nothing more than fundamental literacy and
a willingness to study and practice are required to make it work.
The only accessory that you really must have (beyond a good supply of pencils) is some way to obtain
copies of research reports. That means you will need access to academic journals that serve as the primary
publication outlet for such material. If you are using this book in a college course, obtaining reports probably
will not be a concern. If you are on your own, a college library (and many of the larger public libraries), a copy
machine, and a cash card will serve to get you started. Of course, if you have electronic access to the reports,
11
you will need only your computer and a printer.
All of this introductory information is intended to inspire confidence in your ability to use this text; our
experience has been that your confidence will be well founded. We have watched all sorts of people learn how
to read research with sufficient comprehension to extract whatever they are seeking. There are several limits to
what can be accomplished, however, and we would be remiss if those were not made clear. First, some areas of
inquiry employ such highly specialized languages that their reports simply cannot be read by outsiders.
Nothing you read here will make much of a dent in that limitation. Second, being able to understand what an
author is explaining in a report is one thing, but knowing whether the study met all of the standards for
correct research procedure is quite a different thing. We can offer you the means to recognize a wide range of
the problems that sometimes occur in research, but critical expertise is not a reasonable expectation—if only
because it is not the purpose of this book.
Our objectives here are based on modest ambitions for our readers and our own commonsense view of
research as an enterprise. Most of the ideas about research that you will encounter here are well within the
mainstream of what most scholars believe. Certainly, we have made no effort to take radical positions; nor do
we have a desire to equip you with anything other than a sound understanding of how traditional scholarship
works.
Nevertheless, the idea that nonspecialists can profitably access documents that were written as
contributions to an “insider’s conversation” (more about that in Chapter 3) will be surprising to some in the
academic community and perhaps unsettling to others. We will not press our beliefs about that subject here,
but we do ask you to remember that the proof of the pudding is in the eating. Either this book helps you to do
what you want (or have) to do, or it does not. Whatever small heresy we might have committed, we rest our
case entirely in your judgment.
SUGGESTIONS FOR USING THIS BOOK
It has been our experience that most beginners will find it easiest to progress through the chapters in their
present serial order. Chapter boundaries, however, always represent arbitrary divisions, and virtually everyone
will encounter at least some points at which it makes sense for him or her to skip over a particular portion of
the text or jump ahead to find the answer to a particular question—and then return. Some readers, for
example, might find that reading Chapters 5, 6, 10, and 13 much earlier in the sequence yields a more
comfortable sense of linear development. There is absolutely no reason to do anything other than suit your
own needs. We intended this guide to be used as a workbook, in conjunction with both a variety of actual
research reports and, when appropriate, other resource texts. Our only injunction is that, whatever strategies
you use for study, you will obtain the best results if you finish the entire book. We have tried to avoid detours
into topics that are not essential to the development of a sound foundation for reading research. Accordingly,
we believe that all of what is here really matters. In support of that conclusion, allow us to take you on a brief
tour of what we have to offer.
The Preface serves to introduce the book, the authors, and some of our particular beliefs about reading and
understanding research reports. Then, the five chapters that make up the opening portion (Part I) of the book
12
are organized around a number of simple functions. The first of those tasks is to encourage you to believe that
there are conditions under which it makes good sense to seek out research. Thus, in Chapter 1 we undertake
to (a) explain when it is (and is not) cost-effective to read actual reports, (b) describe the truly surprising
variety of interesting and useful things you can find in reports, (c) briefly outline the major content sections of
the typical report, and (d) define for the purpose of this book what is (and is not) to be considered a genuine
research report.
Chapter 2 follows with a response to the very first question that most beginners pose: “How do I know
whether I can believe what is in a research report?” Our response offers an explanation of (a) where, how, and
by whom research reports are created; (b) how they are processed for publication; and (c) what hallmarks to
look for when deciding how much to trust the veracity of what you read.
The final section of Part I consists of three chapters that will serve to launch you into what follows—our
effort to teach you the specific skills needed to read several kinds of research reports as well as research
reviews. As a first step in that process, Chapter 3 deals with the obvious housekeeping chore of locating and
selecting reports that are appropriate for a beginner as well as the initial mental adjustments of expectation
and attitude that are essential if your reading is to be fruitful.
Then, to close Part I, we pause for a moment to frame the task of learning to read research reports within
a wider social context. In Chapter 4 we offer you an unblinking examination of why many people, perhaps
including yourself, would not voluntarily elect to read research. That excursion into truthful reality concludes,
however, with an introduction to our main argument—an optimistic view that is woven into all of the
following chapters. Put simply, we assert that research reports contain information and ideas that you will find
valuable. Further, we urge you to believe that, with our assistance, you can learn how to access those treasures
by reading and understanding research reports.
Finally, in Chapter 5 we lay out an overview of the many formats now available for doing research. As you
begin to survey what we have chosen to call “types” of research, you will find that there is a tension between
what is distinctive in each type and what is shared in common among all. Within a field with great variety
there are strong threads of commonality. While each major type of inquiry is unique in particular ways, there
are common demands and concerns that pervade all forms of research. We believe it is the latter, those aspects
that are universal among models for inquiry, that provide the best foundation for learning to how to read and
understand reports. Thus, while we will lay out the broad dimensions of what separates the major types of
research, our emphasis will be on elements that are shared among all models for inquiry.
In the following Parts II, III, and IV, we will guide you step-by-step through the reading of reports from
both quantitative and qualitative studies and then through a typical research review. Each of the three sets of
instructions is built around an instrument designed to provide an organizing framework for the reading
process, one that will help you avoid feeling overwhelmed by technical detail or becoming lost in the initially
unfamiliar format conventions that are employed in reports.
For those readers who have the advantage of studying in a group setting (whether in a formal college class
or in an informal study group), Chapter 8 suggests a series of exercises that we have used to accelerate the
progress of beginners. Based on the familiar premise that the best way to learn is to teach, the exercises involve
the task of “explaining” reports, and they can be used with as few as two people or with groups of progressively
larger size for more complex forms of practice.
13
Throughout, our goal has been to provide a user-friendly introduction to the different types of research
that the beginner might encounter. That is accomplished in Chapters 6 (quantitative studies), 10 (qualitative
studies and mixed metho…

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