BUS 241 Northern Virginia Community College Employee VS Independent Discussion; Law homework solution

BUS 241 Northern Virginia Community College Employee VS Independent Discussion; Law homework solution

comment and reply : 1. While two companies can have identical profit and loss statements, there is nothing stating that their returns will be identical. The returns could be very similar, and even identical in very rare circumstances, but it is not guaranteed. The reason that they could have similar profit and loss statements is because they are in the same industry and sell a product that is very, very similar to their competitors. The differentiating factor determining the returns and profits and losses are the capital structures of the companies.  The capital structure “describes the mix of a firm’s long-term capital, which consists of a combination of debt and equity.” (Loth, 2020). Capital structure is a “permanent type of funding that supports a company’s growth and related assets.” (Loth, 2020). Capital structure is equal to the debt obligations in addition to their shareholders’ equity. There are three ratios that are used to assess the overall strength of a company’s capital structure. Those three formulas are the debt ratio, debt-to-equity ratio, and the capitalization ratio.  It is also important to note that the companies sources of financing may be different, and could contain more debt than equity and vice versa. If a company uses more of their debt than capital shares or equity, it increases the company’s financial liabilities. When the financial liability of a company increases, the financial risk increases, which makes the return higher. If the company has chosen to use capital shares for financial obligations, they may be required to liquidate some of their shares. Hence, the debt-equity ratio could be off which is why the amount of the returns varies. In this case, the company that is required to liquidate their shares would be riskier since their financial risk is higher than that of their competitor.  2. Two companies may have the same profitability shown in the P& L statement or Income Statement. However, the annual returns to their investors, in the form of dividends, often, are quite different. How will this happen? We need to look at the capital structure of the company, in other words, we need to look at what comprises of the assets of the company. Normally, a company’s assets is composed of three parts, the first part is the own assets of the company, the liquidity. The second part is the debts in the form of bonds or loans, both long-term and short-term, for which the company needs to pay interests. The third part is the equity, in the form of stocks for which the company will pay dividends. With these three parts of the assets working together, the company conducts business and earns a profit or loss—net income or net loss. The mixture of the three parts of the asset is very important to the health of the operations of the company, especially the ratio of debt and equity. According to Tuovila (2020), there is a high leverage mixture, such as 50% liquidity (asset), 40% debts and 10% equity and there is a low leverage mixture, such as 50% liquidity (asset), 10% debts and 40% equity. The assets with a higher percentage of equity is riskier, even if it may bring in greater prospects for profits. The dividend per share formula is as follows: (Net Income – Dividends on Preferred Stock)/the Number of Outstanding Stocks). With a different capital structure, the two companies with the same profitability may have different mixture of equity, and therefore may have different dividends each year and different number of outstanding stocks. So even if the Net Income is the same, the dividends per share of stock will be different.

1. While two companies can have identical profit and loss statements, there is nothing stating that their returns will be identical. The returns could be very similar, and even identical in very rare circumstances, but it is not guaranteed. The reason that they could have similar profit and loss statements is because they are in the same industry and sell a product that is very, very similar to their competitors. The differentiating factor determining the returns and profits and losses are the capital structures of the companies. 
The capital structure “describes the mix of a firm’s long-term capital, which consists of a combination of debt and equity.” (Loth, 2020). Capital structure is a “permanent type of funding that supports a company’s growth and related assets.” (Loth, 2020). Capital structure is equal to the debt obligations in addition to their shareholders’ equity. There are three ratios that are used to assess the overall strength of a company’s capital structure. Those three formulas are the debt ratio, debt-to-equity ratio, and the capitalization ratio. 
It is also important to note that the companies sources of financing may be different, and could contain more debt than equity and vice versa. If a company uses more of their debt than capital shares or equity, it increases the company’s financial liabilities. When the financial liability of a company increases, the financial risk increases, which makes the return higher. If the company has chosen to use capital shares for financial obligations, they may be required to liquidate some of their shares. Hence, the debt-equity ratio could be off which is why the amount of the returns varies. In this case, the company that is required to liquidate their shares would be riskier since their financial risk is higher than that of their competitor. 
2. Two companies may have the same profitability shown in the P& L statement or Income Statement. However, the annual returns to their investors, in the form of dividends, often, are quite different. How will this happen? We need to look at the capital structure of the company, in other words, we need to look at what comprises of the assets of the company. Normally, a company’s assets is composed of three parts, the first part is the own assets of the company, the liquidity. The second part is the debts in the form of bonds or loans, both long-term and short-term, for which the company needs to pay interests. The third part is the equity, in the form of stocks for which the company will pay dividends. With these three parts of the assets working together, the company conducts business and earns a profit or loss—net income or net loss.
The mixture of the three parts of the asset is very important to the health of the operations of the company, especially the ratio of debt and equity. According to Tuovila (2020), there is a high leverage mixture, such as 50% liquidity (asset), 40% debts and 10% equity and there is a low leverage mixture, such as 50% liquidity (asset), 10% debts and 40% equity. The assets with a higher percentage of equity is riskier, even if it may bring in greater prospects for profits.
The dividend per share formula is as follows: (Net Income – Dividends on Preferred Stock)/the Number of Outstanding Stocks). With a different capital structure, the two companies with the same profitability may have different mixture of equity, and therefore may have different dividends each year and different number of outstanding stocks. So even if the Net Income is the same, the dividends per share of stock will be different.

Case Study : Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English spelling and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be four (4) pages in length; refer to the “Assignment Format” page for specific format requirements. Read the case Akamai Technologies: Attempting to Keep Supply Ahead of Demand on pp. 182-185 of your text. Respond to the following. CASE:  Akamai Technologies: Attempting to Keep Supply Ahead of Demand In 2017, the amount of Internet traffic generated by YouTube alone is greater than the amount of traffic on the entire Internet in 2000. Because of video streaming and the explosion in mobile devices demanding high-bandwidth applications, Internet traffic has increased over 500% since 2010 and is predicted to nearly triple by 2021 (see Figure 3.18). Internet video is now a majority of Internet traffic and will reach 82% by 2021, according to Cisco. Mobile platform traffic is expected to grow sevenfold from its 2016 levels by 2021. Cisco estimates that annual global Internet traffic will be around 3.3 zettabytes in 2021: that’s 3,30 3,300 exabytes, or, in other words, 33 with 19 zeroes behind it! FIGURE 3.18 THE GROWTH OF INTER In today’s broadband environment, the threshold of patience is very low. Increased video and audio customer expectations are bad news for anyone seeking to use the Web for the delivery of high-quality multimedia content and high-definition video. Akamai is one of the Web’s major helpers, and an overwhelming majority of the Web’s top companies use Akamai’s services to speed the delivery of content. Akamai serves more than 30 terabits of web traffic per second. Slow-loading web pages and content sometimes result from poor design, but more often than not, the problem stems from the underlying infrastructure of the Internet. The Internet is a collection of networks that has to pass information from one network to another. Sometimes the handoff is not smooth. Every 1,500-byte packet of information sent over the Internet must be verified by the receiving server and an acknowledgment sent to the sender. This slows down not only the distribution of content such as music but also slows down interactive requests, such as purchases, that require the client computer to interact with an online shopping cart. Moreover, each packet may go through many different servers on its way to its final destination, multiplying by several orders of magnitude the number of acknowledgments required to move a packet from New York to San Francisco. The Internet today spends much of its time and capacity verifying packets, contributing to a problem called “latency” or delay. For this reason, a single e-mail with a 1-megabyte attached PDF file can create more than 50 megabytes of Internet traffic and data storage on servers, client hard drives, and network backup drives. Web page load times for desktops have also increased significantly as pages become laden with more content of various types. Load times increased by over 60% from 2013 to 2015 and have continued to rise since that time, further complicating content distribution. Akamai Technologies was founded by Tom Leighton, an MIT professor of applied mathematics, and Daniel Lewin, an MIT grad student, with the idea of expediting Internet traffic to overcome these limitations. Lewin’s master’s thesis was the theoretical starting point for the company. It described storing copies of web content such as pictures or video clips at many different locations around the Internet so that one could always retrieve a nearby copy, making web pages load faster. Officially launched in August 1998, Akamai’s current products are based on the Akamai Intelligent Platform, a cloud platform made up of over 233,000 servers in 130 countries within over 1,500 networks around the world, and all within a single network hop of 85% of all Internet users. Akamai software on these servers allows the platform to identify and block security threats and provide comprehensive knowledge of network conditions, as well as instant device-level detection and optimization. Akamai’s site performance products allow customers to move their online content closer to end users so a user in New York City, for instance, will be served L.L.Bean pages from the New York Metro area Akamai servers, while users of the L.L.Bean site in San Francisco will be served pages from Akamai servers in San Francisco. Akamai has a wide range of large corporate and government clients: 1 out of every 3 global Fortune 500 companies, the top 30 media and entertainment companies, 96 of the top 100 online U.S. retailers, all branches of the U.S. military, all the major U.S. sports leagues, and so on. In 2017, Akamai delivers between 15% and 30% of all web traffic, and over 3 trillion daily Internet interactions. Other competitors in the content delivery network (CDN) industry include Limelight Networks, Level 3 Communications, and Mirror Image Internet. Accomplishing this daunting task requires that Akamai monitor the entire Internet, locating potential sluggish areas and devising faster routes for information to travel. Frequently used portions of a client’s website, or large video or audio files that would be difficult to send to users quickly, are stored on Akamai’s servers. When a user requests a song or a video file, his or her request is redirected to an Akamai server nearby and the content is served from this local server. Akamai’s servers are placed in Tier 1 backbone supplier networks, large ISPs, universities, and other networks. Akamai’s software determines which server is optimal for the user and then transmits the content locally. Web sites that are “Akamaized” can be delivered anywhere from 4 to 10 times as fast as non- Akamaized content. Akamai has developed a number of other business services based on its Internet savvy, including targeted advertising based on user location and zip code, content security, business intelligence, disaster recovery, on-demand bandwidth and computing capacity during spikes in Internet traffic, storage, global traffic management, and streaming services. You can see several interesting visualizations of the Internet that log basic real-time online activity by visiting the Akamai website. The shift toward cloud computing and the mobile platform as well as the growing popularity of streaming video have provided Akamai with new growth opportunities. As more businesses and business models are moving to the Web, Akamai has seen its client base continue to grow beyond the most powerful Internet retailers and online content providers. In 2014, Akamai made a push to encourage Hollywood studios to use the cloud for feature films, touting its ability to handle uploads and downloads of large video files, to quickly convert files from one format to another, and to apply DRM protections. Establishing partnerships with movie studios represented big business for Akamai, with an increasing amount of media consumption taking place on mobile devices through the cloud. Akamai has also made agreements to become the primary content delivery platform for cloud service providers like Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud Platform. However, the growth of streaming video has also created new challenges for Akamai, including increased competition from Comcast and Amazon, which have built competing for content delivery services. Amazon’s CloudFront content delivery network is already bringing in $2.3 billion in revenues. Many of Akamai’s largest clients, including Apple, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Netflix, are also increasingly shifting their content delivery operations away from Akamai’s platforms and onto in-house content delivery networks, putting downward pressure on the company’s revenues and stock price, which dropped in response to lower first-quarter earnings in 2017. Amazon in particular continues to make inroads against Akamai—while Akamai still serves more top 100 domains, Amazon CloudFront serves the majority of the top million domains, suggesting that Amazon is steadily building its client base with mid-sized companies. Other competitors in content delivery, such as Cloudflare, Fastly, and Stack Path also represent threats to Akamai’s continued dominance. Akamai is also acutely aware of the increase in cybercrime as more traffic migrates to the Internet. Growth in Internet traffic is good news for Akamai, but the company must also now deal with politically motivated cyberattacks, organized crime online, and state-sponsored cyberwarfare, not just against its clients, but against CDNs like Akamai itself. Akamai has continued to improve its Kona Site Defender tool, which offers a variety of security measures for Akamai clients. The tool protects against Distributed Denial. Service (DDoS) attacks and includes a firewall for web applications. In 2016, Akamai rolled out new improvements to Kona’s web application firewall and analytics features. Akamai also upgraded Site Defender’s Web Application Firewall feature and developed modifications to the tool that makes it easier for its users to use. With DDoS attacks against CDNs on the rise, Akamai has also taken precautions to ensure that it can withstand an attack against its infrastructure. With so many businesses now dependent on the uninterrupted flow of content over the Internet, Akamai is in a very strong position to sell security services and analytics to its customers. Akamai has partnered with security companies such as Trustwave and China Unicom to sell products jointly and has also set itself up for future growth by moving into areas of the world with less developed broadband infrastructure, such as the Middle East. In 2015, Akamai opened an office in Dubai, hoping to bolster its presence in an area where the adoption rate for broadband is skyrocketing. In 2017, Akamai acquired SOASTA, whose flagship product, CloudTest, allows companies to test and analyze the performance of their websites and website applications and is used by Apple, Target, and Walmart. The move will add a valuable new offering to Akamai’s Web Performance Solutions group of tools. In 2016, experiencing rapidly increasing demand from its clients for security tools, Akamai announced it would restructure its business into two distinct units, one focusing on content delivery and media, and the other on website security. The improvements in Akamai’s security businesses have offset much of the slowdown in its content delivery business, with 60% of the company’s overall revenue coming from its cybersecurity division in the first quarter of 2017. While the future of its content delivery business is cloudier due to increased competition and the challenges of Internet growth, the company remains profitable. Part A: Discuss the evolution and future of e-commerce. Part B: Why does Akamai need to geographically disperse its servers to deliver its customers’ web content? Part C: If you wanted to deliver software content over the Internet, would you sign up for Akamai’s service? Why or why not? Part D: Do you think Internet users should be charged based on the amount of bandwidth they consume, or a tiered plan where users would pay in rough proportion to their usage?

Unless otherwise stated, answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English spelling and grammar. Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be four (4) pages in length; refer to the “Assignment Format” page for specific format requirements.
Read the case Akamai Technologies: Attempting to Keep Supply Ahead of Demand on pp. 182-185 of your text. Respond to the following.
CASE: 
Akamai Technologies: Attempting to Keep Supply Ahead of Demand In 2017, the amount of Internet traffic generated by YouTube alone is greater than the amount of traffic on the entire Internet in 2000. Because of video streaming and the explosion in mobile devices demanding high-bandwidth applications, Internet traffic has increased over 500% since 2010 and is predicted to nearly triple by 2021 (see Figure 3.18).
Internet video is now a majority of Internet traffic and will reach 82% by 2021, according to Cisco. Mobile platform traffic is expected to grow sevenfold from its 2016 levels by 2021. Cisco estimates that annual global Internet traffic will be around 3.3 zettabytes in 2021: that’s 3,30
3,300 exabytes, or, in other words, 33 with 19 zeroes behind it! FIGURE 3.18 THE GROWTH OF INTER
In today’s broadband environment, the threshold of patience is very low. Increased video and audio customer expectations are bad news for anyone seeking to use the Web for the delivery of high-quality multimedia content and high-definition video. Akamai is one of the Web’s major helpers, and an overwhelming majority of the Web’s top companies use Akamai’s services to speed the delivery of content. Akamai serves more than 30 terabits of web traffic per second. Slow-loading web pages and content sometimes result from poor design, but more often than not, the problem stems from the underlying infrastructure of the Internet. The Internet is a collection of networks that has to pass information from one network to another. Sometimes the handoff is not smooth. Every 1,500-byte packet of information sent over the Internet must be verified by the receiving server and an acknowledgment sent to the sender. This slows down not only the distribution of content such as music but also slows down interactive requests, such as purchases, that require the client computer to interact with an online shopping cart. Moreover, each packet may go through many different servers on its way to its final destination, multiplying by several orders of magnitude the number of acknowledgments required to move a packet from New York to San Francisco. The Internet today spends much of its time and capacity verifying packets, contributing to a problem called “latency” or delay. For this reason, a single e-mail with a 1-megabyte attached PDF file can create more than 50 megabytes of Internet traffic and data storage on servers, client hard drives, and network backup drives. Web page load times for desktops have also increased significantly as pages become laden with more content of various types. Load times increased by over 60% from 2013 to 2015 and have continued to rise since that time, further complicating content distribution. Akamai Technologies was founded by Tom Leighton, an MIT professor of applied mathematics, and Daniel Lewin, an MIT grad student, with the idea of expediting Internet traffic to overcome these limitations. Lewin’s master’s thesis was the theoretical starting point for the company. It described storing copies of web content such as pictures or video clips at many different locations around the Internet so that one could always retrieve a nearby copy, making web pages load faster. Officially launched in August 1998, Akamai’s current products are based on the Akamai Intelligent Platform, a cloud platform made up of over 233,000 servers in 130 countries within over 1,500 networks around the world, and all within a single network hop of 85% of all Internet users. Akamai software on these servers allows the platform to identify and block security threats and provide comprehensive knowledge of network conditions, as well as instant device-level detection and optimization. Akamai’s site performance products allow customers to move their online content closer to end users so a user in New York City, for instance, will be served L.L.Bean pages from the New York Metro area Akamai servers, while users of the L.L.Bean site in San Francisco will be served pages from Akamai servers in San Francisco. Akamai has a wide range of large corporate and government clients: 1 out of every 3 global Fortune 500 companies, the top 30 media and entertainment companies, 96 of the top 100 online U.S. retailers, all branches of the U.S. military, all the major U.S. sports leagues, and so on. In 2017, Akamai delivers between 15% and 30% of all web traffic, and over 3 trillion daily Internet interactions. Other competitors in the content delivery network (CDN) industry include Limelight Networks, Level 3 Communications, and Mirror Image Internet.
Accomplishing this daunting task requires that Akamai monitor the entire Internet, locating potential sluggish areas and devising faster routes for information to travel. Frequently used portions of a client’s website, or large video or audio files that would be difficult to send to users quickly, are stored on Akamai’s servers. When a user requests a song or a video file, his or her request is redirected to an Akamai server nearby and the content is served from this local server. Akamai’s servers are placed in Tier 1 backbone supplier networks, large ISPs, universities, and other networks. Akamai’s software determines which server is optimal for the user and then transmits the content locally. Web sites that are “Akamaized” can be delivered anywhere from 4 to 10 times as fast as non- Akamaized content. Akamai has developed a number of other business services based on its Internet savvy, including targeted advertising based on user location and zip code, content security, business intelligence, disaster recovery, on-demand bandwidth and computing capacity during spikes in Internet traffic, storage, global traffic management, and streaming services. You can see several interesting visualizations of the Internet that log basic real-time online activity by visiting the Akamai website. The shift toward cloud computing and the mobile platform as well as the growing popularity of streaming video have provided Akamai with new growth opportunities. As more businesses and business models are moving to the Web, Akamai has seen its client base continue to grow beyond the most powerful Internet retailers and online content providers. In 2014, Akamai made a push to encourage Hollywood studios to use the cloud for feature films, touting its ability to handle uploads and downloads of large video files, to quickly convert files from one format to another, and to apply DRM protections. Establishing partnerships with movie studios represented big business for Akamai, with an increasing amount of media consumption taking place on mobile devices through the cloud. Akamai has also made agreements to become the primary content delivery platform for cloud service providers like Microsoft Azure and Google Cloud Platform. However, the growth of streaming video has also created new challenges for Akamai, including increased competition from Comcast and Amazon, which have built competing for content delivery services. Amazon’s CloudFront content delivery network is already bringing in $2.3 billion in revenues. Many of Akamai’s largest clients, including Apple, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Netflix, are also increasingly shifting their content delivery operations away from Akamai’s platforms and onto in-house content delivery networks, putting downward pressure on the company’s revenues and stock price, which dropped in response to lower first-quarter earnings in 2017. Amazon in particular continues to make inroads against Akamai—while Akamai still serves more top 100 domains, Amazon CloudFront serves the majority of the top million domains, suggesting that Amazon is steadily building its client base with mid-sized companies. Other competitors in content delivery, such as Cloudflare, Fastly, and Stack Path also represent threats to Akamai’s continued dominance. Akamai is also acutely aware of the increase in cybercrime as more traffic migrates to the Internet. Growth in Internet traffic is good news for Akamai, but the company must also now deal with politically motivated cyberattacks, organized crime online, and state-sponsored cyberwarfare, not just against its clients, but against CDNs like Akamai itself. Akamai has continued to improve its Kona Site Defender tool, which offers a variety of security measures for Akamai clients. The tool protects against Distributed Denial.
Service (DDoS) attacks and includes a firewall for web applications. In 2016, Akamai rolled out new improvements to Kona’s web application firewall and analytics features. Akamai also upgraded Site Defender’s Web Application Firewall feature and developed modifications to the tool that makes it easier for its users to use. With DDoS attacks against CDNs on the rise, Akamai has also taken precautions to ensure that it can withstand an attack against its infrastructure. With so many businesses now dependent on the uninterrupted flow of content over the Internet, Akamai is in a very strong position to sell security services and analytics to its customers. Akamai has partnered with security companies such as Trustwave and China Unicom to sell products jointly and has also set itself up for future growth by moving into areas of the world with less developed broadband infrastructure, such as the Middle East. In 2015, Akamai opened an office in Dubai, hoping to bolster its presence in an area where the adoption rate for broadband is skyrocketing. In 2017, Akamai acquired SOASTA, whose flagship product, CloudTest, allows companies to test and analyze the performance of their websites and website applications and is used by Apple, Target, and Walmart. The move will add a valuable new offering to Akamai’s Web Performance Solutions group of tools. In 2016, experiencing rapidly increasing demand from its clients for security tools, Akamai announced it would restructure its business into two distinct units, one focusing on content delivery and media, and the other on website security. The improvements in Akamai’s security businesses have offset much of the slowdown in its content delivery business, with 60% of the company’s overall revenue coming from its cybersecurity division in the first quarter of 2017. While the future of its content delivery business is cloudier due to increased competition and the challenges of Internet growth, the company remains profitable.
Part A: Discuss the evolution and future of e-commerce.
Part B: Why does Akamai need to geographically disperse its servers to deliver its customers’ web content?
Part C: If you wanted to deliver software content over the Internet, would you sign up for Akamai’s service? Why or why not?
Part D: Do you think Internet users should be charged based on the amount of bandwidth they consume, or a tiered plan where users would pay in rough proportion to their usage?

I don’t understand this Health & Medical question and need help to study .
Draft a reply to another students Discussion Board Post . Here is the instructions for the reply 2 replies of at least 450 words each to 2 classmates’ threads . Each thread and reply must reference at least 3 scholarly sources other than the course textbook and citations must follow current APA format (including both in-text citations and a reference list) . You must also support each thread and reply with thoughtful analysis (considering assumptions, analyzing implications, and comparing/contrasting concepts and include thorough biblical worldview integration .
Here is the students post you are replying to
CLONING ETHICALThe Ethical Issues for Society Healthcare professionals do have a challenging task every day, especially when faced with ethical decision making . The problem the world faces in this discussion regarding stem cells and cloning is ethical and moral standing . In society, cloning concludes that scientist destroys human life in order to save human lives . However, that puts the finger on the problem in a sort of brutal way because scientists and healthcare professionals cannot deny that they destroy the blastocyst . Furthermore, in a sense, scientists and health professionals destroy a potential human life . However, the status of humanity and human life has been the subject of thought and debate . Discussion from everyone involved, the philosophical approaches from Aristotle and Aquinas should be recognized as something special about the human being . However, they were not sure when that theory or when their human likeness came into being . However, people would deny medical research from research into embryonic and adult stem cells . However, the essentially ethical question is whether Christian or non-Christians be using embryos to do cloning . “Cloning is widely considered only to be biological discourse . Few, however, have paid attention to the cultural contexts that have made cloning conceivable”(Essed, & Goldberg, 2010, p . 1066) . Furthermore, what is the moral status of the early human embryo? Is it entirely a person? Most Christians and non-Christians alike look at embryonic stem cell research and conclude the same issue . Most denominations tend to advise that abortion is all about when life begins . However, the unanswered questions are what protection we offer to all human beings . Leaders who make law-abiding decisions can never set aside a subset of humanity and say they are not deserving of protection . “Recent advances in the field of cloning and stem cell research have introduced new hope for treatment of serious disease”(Larijani, Zahedi, 2004, p . 3188) . The Islamic perspectives of the status of the embryo state that one could recognize four different stages . First, the embryo outside the womb, the embryo when it is implanted into the womb, the education of 6 to 8 weeks when the fetus is fully formed, and finally, most importantly, is 120 days after conception installment takes place . However, that is a significant milestone for some people; furthermore, the embryo has no status and is a matter of duty that one should be researching to save human life . The scales weigh very heavily on one side; the opposite position is that there is no balance . There is a question of balance and how far scientists should justify the destruction of what could be the human being . Incurable diseases also have interests that need to be looked after, and there is a moral obligation to cure diseases to relieve suffering and restore health . However, when considering the suffering of people who have diabetes, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer and a few other incurable diseases, such as diabetes, is a large group; these are diseases that everybody knows somebody who suffers . There is an immense potential to cure diseases, but that has never been curable in the past . Scientists can eventually, through research, find something that can counterbalance the direct killing of a life . Furthermore, the moral and ethical question of how one begins as human beings and how one develops is an old issue . It was true that embryos became available outside the womb that the present questions were asked . Furthermore, that prompted the government to set up the Ad Hoc Committee, which looked in considerable detail at the moral and ethical issues surrounding the human embryo and to what extent research might or might not be permitted . The ethical issues for a Christian healthcare professional One question that many people will feel is remote like what that has to do with Christianity unless they have a pet that they want to clone . However, ethical issues in healthcare for a Christian professional are real and come up every day . It is essential because it is a significant worldview issue; it has much to do with how Christians understand human beings are made in God’s image and how Christians understand the mandate given to these stewards of what God has created . Furthermore, when scientists and professionals talk about cloning, also referred to as somatic cell nuclear transfer . In most cases, this is important because when people hear about cloning and are asked whether they think that Christians should agree with human beings’ cloning, the overwhelming answer is no . However, when they are asked whether Christians participate in somatic cell nuclear transfer for genetic diseases, they will say yes . However, what most people do not know is that it is the same thing, and therefore, when we are talking about cloning or somatic cell nuclear transfer, there are two types . The cloning of human beings The cloning of human beings is a critical issue; two types are discussed one is research cloning, sometimes called therapeutic cloning; and the other is reproductive cloning In reproductive cloning, the purpose of this process would be that it is another way for an infertile couple to have a child, in other words, it is another form of assisted reproductive technology although people and denominations would argue it is a very different type of form . Furthermore, in this process, what happens is that a healthcare professional takes the woman’s egg; and the nucleus is removed . However, this is called an enucleated egg, and then scientists would take a call from the father or another donor a somatic cell; that is where somatic cell nuclear transfer is processed . However, a semantic cell is a body cell; it is a non-reproductive cell placed with the enucleated egg . It has given either chemical treatment or an electric charge, and it fuses them, so it acts as though fertilization has taken place . “According to Shiite perspective, the relative inviolability of the human embryo starts at the time of implantation and attains complete ethical status at ensoulment” (Kiar, ash, 2018, p . 2182) Furthermore, if the process is successful, it starts to divide cell division . One will have an embryo . furthermore, with reproductive cloning, that new embryo, just like within Vitro fertilization, that a new embryo would be placed in the woman’s womb for implantation reproductive cloning . “Numerous biomedical scientists have contributed to the wide knowledge on the growth of preimplantation human embryos in vitro, now improving every aspect of the form of clinical care” (Edwards, 2003, p . 700) . Research cloning or therapeutic cloning is precisely the same procedure many times it has talked about as though it is entirely different . It is the same procedure until an individual has the embryo and then what scientists do with research cloning is that they would harvest the stem cells from that embryo . As a result, the embryo has destroyed the reason for doing that much like embryonic stem cell research; furthermore, it is a form of embryonic stem cell research that scientists use those stem cells . Scientists would use them to find a cure for various diseases or the public’s view in talking to some people in research in this area; the idea is to gain a more excellent knowledge of early human development . Christians should weigh participation in such efforts In this discussion, individuals evaluate these procedures and determine if Christians should or should not agree or disagree with this new scientific research . The short answer to the question is that stem cell cloning should be an individual decision . Scripture guides us in John 3 5 “ Jesus answered, “truly, truly, I say to you unless one is born of water and the spirit, he cannot enter the Kingdom of God” (ESV) . Many people have their reasons to be opposed to reproductive cloning, but some will accept the advantages of research cloning and say scientists should go forward . However, in the United States, a couple of states have passed laws that allow for research cloning but prohibit reproductive cloning . However, this is interesting because people allow the creation of a human being through cloning by the state’s laws . However, that human being must be destroyed; imagine that this is a law in the United States; it is not federal law . In individual states, it allows research cloning that requires the destruction of that human being; this should not happen . Therefore, the most fundamental objection to human cloning to research cloning is the destruction of human embryos . “”I was astounded by the elegance of the human DNA code and the multiple consequences of those rare careless moments of its copying mechanism”” (Collins, 2006, p . 19) . They are created to be destroyed . However, there are still problems with risk on human lives and destruction when it comes to reproductive cloning because, in animal trials, one might think of the great success of Dolly, the sheep which was two decades ago . Furthermore, that success came only after failed attempts . There were 267 failed attempts at cloning before that successful attempt . When it comes to human beings, then are people and scientists and Christians and; decision-makers ready to allow for the death of so many human embryos—the destruction of embryos in clinical trials before perfected this technique . Even if scientists do the risks in animal trials again, one will have the risks of deformed animals of all kinds . Furthermore, are humans willing to risk the repeat of that tragedy things, and should society ask these questions; are humans in a place where they can be willing to take the risk . Another question one might ask is the risk all on ourselves; we risk something for someone else who has no consent because consent cannot be obtained because they have not been created yet . However, this leads to considering that even the reproductive cloning attempt should be halted before it begins . There is some concern that because research cloning is allowed generally in the United States, scientists can perfect human cloning . Furthermore, if it is just research cloning that has created those embryos, somebody will seek to use them for implantation to bring about human being individuals would not know for years what potential implications that human beings might bear because of humans’ interests in cloning . ReferencesCollins, F . S . (2006) . The language of God A scientist presents evidence for belief . New York, NY Free Press . ISBN 9781416542742 . Edwards, R . G . (2003) . United Nations and human cloning a slender and fortunate defense for biomedical research . Reproductive biomedicine online, 7(6), 700-702 . https //doi . org/10 . 1016/S1472-6483(10)62094-9 . Essed, D . & . (2010) . Cloning cultures the social injustices of sameness . Ethics and racial studies, 25(6), 1066-1082 . https //doi-org . ezproxy . liberty . edu/10 . 1080/0141987022000009430 . Kiarash, A . (2018) . Shiite perspective on the moral status of the early human embryo A critical review . Journal of religion and health, 57(6), 2182-2192 . http //dx . doi . org . ezproxy . liberty . edu/10 . 1007/s10943-017-0518-6 . Larijani, B . & . (2004) . Islamic perspective on human cloning and stem cell research . Transplantation Proceedings, 36(10), 3188-3189 . https //doi . org/10 . 1016/j . transproceed . 2004 . 10 . 076 . “
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