Category: PHYS 250 Canada College 2D Motion Video Analysis Paper

Discussion Question : According to the 2014 ACA code of ethics “Counselors respect the diversity of clients, trainees, and research participants and seek training in areas in which they are at risk of imposing their values onto clients, especially when the counselor’s values are inconsistent with the client’s goals or are discriminatory in nature.” Review Butman and Yarhouse’s article “Psychopathology Through the Eyes of Faith: Integrative Reflections for the Classroom and Beyond” and briefly describe their approach to teaching psychopathology. Identify two or three elements you find interesting about their method of teaching psychopathology and explain why they are important to you.

According to the 2014 ACA code of ethics “Counselors respect the diversity of clients, trainees, and research participants and seek training in areas in which they are at risk of imposing their values onto clients, especially when the counselor’s values are inconsistent with the client’s goals or are discriminatory in nature.” Review Butman and Yarhouse’s article “Psychopathology Through the Eyes of Faith: Integrative Reflections for the Classroom and Beyond” and briefly describe their approach to teaching psychopathology. Identify two or three elements you find interesting about their method of teaching psychopathology and explain why they are important to you.

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Week 11 Discussion Response to Classmates : I NEED THIS 02/13/21 BY 5PM Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resources on your own before you bid. You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation regarding treatment. Grammar, Writing, and APA Format: I expect you to write professionally, which means APA format, complete sentences, proper paragraphs, and well-organized and well-documented presentation of ideas. Remember to use scholarly research from peer-reviewed articles that is current. Sources such as Wikipedia, Ask.com, PsychCentral, and similar sites are never acceptable. Each classmate’s post is listed so please respond separately. Read your classmates’ postings. Respond to your classmates’ postings. Respond to all colleagues by discussing the      elements of the mini script that you liked, and why. What might you add or      have said differently? 1. Classmate (S.G-C) The terms complementary and alternative have been interchanged when discussing use of non-mainstream therapies with traditional medicines. However, the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) (2018), shows us how incorrect we are when discussing theses options with clients. Complementary means to add non-traditional/mainstream treatments, such as vitamins, yoga, massage, or even meditation, acupuncture, or chiropractic to traditional medications/treatments to treat a client’s complex issues. Alternative means to do the forementioned non-traditional/mainstream treatments in place of traditional medicines/treatments. Complementary/Alternative Therapies: How Preconceived Ideas Affect Options Given to Client As a counselor, if I only treat clients with traditional methods and medicines and do not believe that non-traditional methods (such as those mentioned above) have a place in counseling or that they are “hogwash” then I am not a professionally responsible counselor according the ACA (2014).  Further, it limits the level of care that can be given to the client as well as the amount of success in treatment outcomes. Importance of Counselors Being Well Informed About Alternative Treatments When a counselor is ill-informed or oblivious to treatment options available, we are doing a disservice to the client and creating potential harm. According to the ACA’s code of ethics (2014) counselors avoid bringing harm to clients as well as maintain competence in skills by utilizing continuing education opportunities to stay abreast of the latest and most evidence-based practices. A counselor that is well-informed and knowledgeable about complementary and alternative treatments have many options to present to clients that either have had trouble tolerating traditional treatments, do not wish to take traditional medicines, or need a something more than traditional methods can offer (NCCIH, 2018). The key is to know your client and know the research and present the best options for your client, instead of overwhelming them with twenty different choices that can leave them frustrated and confused. See ACA, 2014 sections: A.4.a. Avoiding Harm Counselors act to avoid harming their clients, trainees, and research participants and to minimize or to remedy unavoidable or unanticipated harm. C.2.f. Continuing Education Counselors recognize the need for continuing education to acquire and maintain a reasonable level of awareness of current scientific and professional information in their fields of activity. Counselors maintain their competence in the skills they use, are open to new procedures, and remain informed regarding best practices for working with diverse populations. Expanding Awareness of Alternative Therapies Expanding awareness of complementary and alternative therapies through continuing education and personal research to learn more about the latest treatment options, clients will get an exceptional level of care that will promote their mental well-being as well as their physical well-being. By joining professional associations such and the ACA and other reputable psychotherapy associations, counselors can be kept well-informed of the latest technology, research, treatments, and therapies that continue to evolve yearly. Reference American Counseling Association. (2014). 2014 ACA code of ethics. https://www.counseling.org/docs/default-source/default-document-library/2014-code-of-ethics-finaladdress.pdf National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) (2018). Complementary, alternative or integrative health: What’s in a name? Retrieved from https://nccih.nih.gov/health/integrative-health 2. Classmate (T. Dav) How can your own preconceived ideas about complementary and alternative therapies affect the options that you suggest to a client?  Bias can be bad for any business but as a counselor we have to always have to be unbiased. We have to keep our own opinions and ideas to our self. I know that I don’t believe  in taking medications but would never push my views on medication use to my clients. I believe that each individual has their own views on the use of medication and if my client has a positive experience with medication use I will not try to persuade them not to use. I think that under certain circumstances medication use with certain diagnosis is required.  How important is it that counselors be well informed about alternative treatments?  I think that in order for a counselor to be able to effectively work with clients they have to be knowledgeable about the different alternatives that a client may need. Often times counselors may see clients who may be concerned about the side effects of a medication and it will be up to the counselor to be able to discuss the medication with the client. The counselor would also need to be able to discuss side effects and or any other information that the client would like to know about the medication.  How can you expand your awareness of alternative therapies?  I will utilize the information that I have learned from my studies along with doing additional research on my own to gain knowledge of alternative therapies. I also plan to take additional classes to stay up to date with different therapies that will be beneficial to the population that I plan to serve in the future. This class have given me insight on a variety of therapies and I plan to enhance on what I have already learned. 3. Classmate (C.D-B) Introduction Today there are evolving alternative therapies and medication to treat various medical mental heath and pain conditions. Often counselors will see a clients who have concerns regarding treatment and the side effect associated with it. Counselors are quickly learning other alternative than will lessening the risk. Preconceived ideas about complementary and alternative therapies The field in which counselor practice is fast approaching new alternatives to the traditional medical treatment. The terms “complementary,” “alternative,” and “integrative” are continually evolving, along with the field. The terms “complementary,” “alternative,” and “integrative” are continually evolving, along with the field, In my professional opinion I would not base my preconceived ideas regarding alternative therapies. People have the right to choose an option that would reduce pain or symptoms and proven to affective. According to Sinacola, Peter-Strickland & Wyner (2020). states” unexplained or multiple somatic symptoms are the leading cause of outpatient medical visits and the predominant reason patients with common mental disorders, such as anxiety and depression, initially present themselves in primary care (p.119). People have multiple conditions are referred as multimorbidity. I would recommend thorough research and reviews to the alternative medication for the mind and body. Therefore, if the therapy would reduce pain or decrease symptoms. I would agree. However, years ago many people would not take medications but would herbs and home remedies to treat themselves. (Sinacola et.al, 2020) states biobehavioral factors that show robust associations with markers of inflammation include variables such as diet, smoking, coffee consumption, alcohol consumption, exercise, and sleep disruption. The importance of informed alternative treatments? Counselor’s should be educated and trained in the field to adequately advise or suggest the therapies. Counselor must always stay informed with any information or update made available for the general interest of the public. However, years ago many people would not take medications but would herbs and home remedies to treat themselves. (Sinacola et.al, 2020) states biobehavioral factors that show robust associations with markers of inflammation include variables such as diet, smoking, coffee consumption, alcohol consumption, exercise, and sleep disruption. The natural products to consider  includes a variety of products, such as herbs (also known as botanicals), vitamins and minerals, and probiotics (NCCIH, 2018) They are widely marketed, readily available to consumers, and often sold as dietary supplements (NCCIH et.al, 2018) Other options are The mind and body practices consist of  acupuncture, relaxation techniques (such as breathing exercises, guided imagery, and progressive muscle relaxation), tai chi, qi gong, hypnotherapy. Expanding awareness of alternative therapies Counselor’s will continue to educate, train and advocate for positive change. It is extremely important to maintain a level of education, stay informed of procedures and process of different alternatives evolving as medications, treatment therapies consistently changing. Regarding the client’s mother discuss the options that has been considered. Provide information that will back the facts. References Sinacola, R. S., Peters-Strickland, T., & Wyner, J. D. (2020). Basic psychopharmacology for mental health professionals (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Pearson. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (2018). Complementary, alternative or integrative health: What’s in a name? Retrieved from https://nccih.nih.gov/health/integrative-health. Required Resources Sinacola, R. S., Peters-Strickland, T., & Wyner, J. D. (2020). Basic psychopharmacology for mental health professionals (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Pearson. · Chapter 14, “Treatment of Comorbidity and Other Disorders”  Optional Resources Borenstein, J. (2018, April 2). How chronic stress affects neural circuitry [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/brain-and-behavior/201804/how-chronic-stress-affects-neural-circuitry Docter, P., & del Carmen, R. (Directors). (2015). Inside out [Motion picture]. United States. Pixar Animation Studios National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (2018). Complementary, alternative or integrative health: What’s in a name? Retrieved from https://nccih.nih.gov/health/integrative-health

I NEED THIS 02/13/21 BY 5PM
Please no plagiarism and make sure you are able to access all resources on your own before you bid. You need to have scholarly support for any claim of fact or recommendation regarding treatment. Grammar, Writing, and APA Format: I expect you to write professionally, which means APA format, complete sentences, proper paragraphs, and well-organized and well-documented presentation of ideas. Remember to use scholarly research from peer-reviewed articles that is current. Sources such as Wikipedia, Ask.com, PsychCentral, and similar sites are never acceptable. Each classmate’s post is listed so please respond separately.
Read your classmates’ postings. Respond to your classmates’ postings.

Respond to all colleagues by discussing the      elements of the mini script that you liked, and why. What might you add or      have said differently?

1. Classmate (S.G-C)
The terms complementary and alternative have been interchanged when discussing use of non-mainstream therapies with traditional medicines. However, the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) (2018), shows us how incorrect we are when discussing theses options with clients. Complementary means to add non-traditional/mainstream treatments, such as vitamins, yoga, massage, or even meditation, acupuncture, or chiropractic to traditional medications/treatments to treat a client’s complex issues. Alternative means to do the forementioned non-traditional/mainstream treatments in place of traditional medicines/treatments.
Complementary/Alternative Therapies: How Preconceived Ideas Affect Options Given to Client
As a counselor, if I only treat clients with traditional methods and medicines and do not believe that non-traditional methods (such as those mentioned above) have a place in counseling or that they are “hogwash” then I am not a professionally responsible counselor according the ACA (2014).  Further, it limits the level of care that can be given to the client as well as the amount of success in treatment outcomes.
Importance of Counselors Being Well Informed About Alternative Treatments
When a counselor is ill-informed or oblivious to treatment options available, we are doing a disservice to the client and creating potential harm. According to the ACA’s code of ethics (2014) counselors avoid bringing harm to clients as well as maintain competence in skills by utilizing continuing education opportunities to stay abreast of the latest and most evidence-based practices. A counselor that is well-informed and knowledgeable about complementary and alternative treatments have many options to present to clients that either have had trouble tolerating traditional treatments, do not wish to take traditional medicines, or need a something more than traditional methods can offer (NCCIH, 2018). The key is to know your client and know the research and present the best options for your client, instead of overwhelming them with twenty different choices that can leave them frustrated and confused.
See ACA, 2014 sections:
A.4.a. Avoiding Harm
Counselors act to avoid harming their clients, trainees, and research participants and to minimize or to remedy unavoidable or unanticipated harm.
C.2.f. Continuing Education
Counselors recognize the need for continuing education to acquire and maintain a reasonable level of awareness of current scientific and professional information in their fields of activity. Counselors maintain their competence in the skills they use, are open to new procedures, and remain informed regarding best practices for working with diverse populations.
Expanding Awareness of Alternative Therapies
Expanding awareness of complementary and alternative therapies through continuing education and personal research to learn more about the latest treatment options, clients will get an exceptional level of care that will promote their mental well-being as well as their physical well-being. By joining professional associations such and the ACA and other reputable psychotherapy associations, counselors can be kept well-informed of the latest technology, research, treatments, and therapies that continue to evolve yearly.
Reference
American Counseling Association. (2014). 2014 ACA code of ethics. https://www.counseling.org/docs/default-source/default-document-library/2014-code-of-ethics-finaladdress.pdf
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) (2018). Complementary, alternative or integrative health: What’s in a name? Retrieved from https://nccih.nih.gov/health/integrative-health
2. Classmate (T. Dav)
How can your own preconceived ideas about complementary and alternative therapies affect the options that you suggest to a client? 
Bias can be bad for any business but as a counselor we have to always have to be unbiased. We have to keep our own opinions and ideas to our self. I know that I don’t believe  in taking medications but would never push my views on medication use to my clients. I believe that each individual has their own views on the use of medication and if my client has a positive experience with medication use I will not try to persuade them not to use. I think that under certain circumstances medication use with certain diagnosis is required. 
How important is it that counselors be well informed about alternative treatments? 
I think that in order for a counselor to be able to effectively work with clients they have to be knowledgeable about the different alternatives that a client may need. Often times counselors may see clients who may be concerned about the side effects of a medication and it will be up to the counselor to be able to discuss the medication with the client. The counselor would also need to be able to discuss side effects and or any other information that the client would like to know about the medication. 
How can you expand your awareness of alternative therapies? 
I will utilize the information that I have learned from my studies along with doing additional research on my own to gain knowledge of alternative therapies. I also plan to take additional classes to stay up to date with different therapies that will be beneficial to the population that I plan to serve in the future. This class have given me insight on a variety of therapies and I plan to enhance on what I have already learned.
3. Classmate (C.D-B)
Introduction
Today there are evolving alternative therapies and medication to treat various medical mental heath and pain conditions. Often counselors will see a clients who have concerns regarding treatment and the side effect associated with it. Counselors are quickly learning other alternative than will lessening the risk.
Preconceived ideas about complementary and alternative therapies
The field in which counselor practice is fast approaching new alternatives to the traditional medical treatment. The terms “complementary,” “alternative,” and “integrative” are continually evolving, along with the field. The terms “complementary,” “alternative,” and “integrative” are continually evolving, along with the field, In my professional opinion I would not base my preconceived ideas regarding alternative therapies. People have the right to choose an option that would reduce pain or symptoms and proven to affective. According to Sinacola, Peter-Strickland & Wyner (2020). states” unexplained or multiple somatic symptoms are the leading cause of outpatient medical visits and the predominant reason patients with common mental disorders, such as anxiety and depression, initially present themselves in primary care (p.119). People have multiple conditions are referred as multimorbidity. I would recommend thorough research and reviews to the alternative medication for the mind and body. Therefore, if the therapy would reduce pain or decrease symptoms. I would agree. However, years ago many people would not take medications but would herbs and home remedies to treat themselves. (Sinacola et.al, 2020) states biobehavioral factors that show robust associations with markers of inflammation include variables such as diet, smoking, coffee consumption, alcohol consumption, exercise, and sleep disruption.
The importance of informed alternative treatments?
Counselor’s should be educated and trained in the field to adequately advise or suggest the therapies. Counselor must always stay informed with any information or update made available for the general interest of the public. However, years ago many people would not take medications but would herbs and home remedies to treat themselves. (Sinacola et.al, 2020) states biobehavioral factors that show robust associations with markers of inflammation include variables such as diet, smoking, coffee consumption, alcohol consumption, exercise, and sleep disruption. The natural products to consider  includes a variety of products, such as herbs (also known as botanicals), vitamins and minerals, and probiotics (NCCIH, 2018) They are widely marketed, readily available to consumers, and often sold as dietary supplements (NCCIH et.al, 2018) Other options are The mind and body practices consist of  acupuncture, relaxation techniques (such as breathing exercises, guided imagery, and progressive muscle relaxation), tai chi, qi gong, hypnotherapy.
Expanding awareness of alternative therapies
Counselor’s will continue to educate, train and advocate for positive change. It is extremely important to maintain a level of education, stay informed of procedures and process of different alternatives evolving as medications, treatment therapies consistently changing. Regarding the client’s mother discuss the options that has been considered. Provide information that will back the facts.
References
Sinacola, R. S., Peters-Strickland, T., & Wyner, J. D. (2020). Basic psychopharmacology for mental health professionals (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Pearson.
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (2018). Complementary, alternative or integrative health: What’s in a name? Retrieved from https://nccih.nih.gov/health/integrative-health.

Required Resources
Sinacola, R. S., Peters-Strickland, T., & Wyner, J. D. (2020). Basic psychopharmacology for mental health professionals (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Pearson.
· Chapter 14, “Treatment of Comorbidity and Other Disorders” 
Optional Resources
Borenstein, J. (2018, April 2). How chronic stress affects neural circuitry [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/brain-and-behavior/201804/how-chronic-stress-affects-neural-circuitry
Docter, P., & del Carmen, R. (Directors). (2015). Inside out [Motion picture]. United States. Pixar Animation Studios
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (2018). Complementary, alternative or integrative health: What’s in a name? Retrieved from https://nccih.nih.gov/health/integrative-health

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Training and development : QUESTION 2 What      should be considered when evaluating a training room?      Your response must be at least 75 words in length. REASONS FOR EVALUATING TRAINING Companies are investing millions of dollars in training programs to help gain a competitive advantage. Companies invest in training because learning creates knowledge; often, it is this knowledge that distinguishes successful companies and employees from those who are not. Research summarizing the results of studies that have examined the linkage between training and human resource outcomes (such as attitudes and motivation, behaviors, and human capital), organizational performance outcomes (performance and productivity), or financial outcomes (profits and financial indicators) has found that companies that conduct training are likely to have more positive human resource outcomes and greater performance outcomes.1 The influence of training is largest for organizational performance outcomes and human resource outcomes and weakest for financial outcomes. This result is not surprising, given that training can least affect an organization’s financial performance and may do so through its influence on human resource practices. As emphasized in Chapter Two, “Strategic Training,” training is more strongly related to organizational outcomes when it is matched with the organization’s business strategy and capital intensity. Because companies have made large dollar investments in training and education and view training as a strategy to be successful, they expect the outcomes or benefits related to training to be measurable. Norton Health Care’s Practice Manager Development Program focuses on improving practice managers’ leadership, practice operations, patient access to care, and patient experience.2 Program participants share best practices, learn from company leaders, and build a plan for their practice operations. The program has resulted in an increase in the number of new patients accepted, office visits, and patients responding “definitely recommend” on customer surveys following an office visit. At Jiffy Lube, training evaluation involves more than just counting the number of programs employees attend each year.3 Jiffy Lube’s page 256business depends on properly servicing customers’ cars so they are satisfied and will be repeat customers. As a result, Jiffy Lube employees must be certified to perform a service. Jiffy Lube tracks both certifications and their relationship to business results. They track both employee and store-level certifications. Entry-level certifications must be completed within 30 days after an employee is hired. Seventy-six percent of Jiffy Lube’s stores are at 80 to 100 percent certification. Of those stores with 100 percent certification, one-third have average customer sales 9 percent higher than all stores. Training evaluation provides a way to understand the investment that training produces and provides the information needed to improve training.4 If a company receives an inadequate return on its investment in training, the company will likely reduce its investment in training or look for training providers outside the company who can provide training experiences that improve performance, productivity, customer satisfaction, or whatever other outcomes the company is interested in achieving. Training evaluation provides the data needed to demonstrate that training does offer benefits to the company. Training evaluation involves both formative and summative evaluation.5 Formative Evaluation Formative evaluation refers to the evaluation of training that takes place during program design and development. That is, formative evaluation helps ensure that (1) the training program is well organized and runs smoothly, and (2) trainees learn and are satisfied with the program. Formative evaluation provides information about how to make the program better; it usually involves collecting qualitative data about the program. Qualitative data include opinions, beliefs, and feelings about the program. Formative evaluations ask customers, employees, managers, and subject-matter experts (SMEs) their opinions on the description of the training content and objectives and the program design. These people are also asked to evaluate the clarity and ease of use of a part of the training program that is demonstrated to them in the way that it will be delivered (e.g., online, face-to-face, or using video).6 The formative evaluation is conducted either individually or in groups before the program is made available to the rest of the company. Trainers may also be involved to measure the time requirements of the program. As a result of the formative evaluation, training content may be changed to be more accurate, easier to understand, or more appealing. The training method can be adjusted to improve learning (e.g., provide trainees with more opportunities to practice or give feedback). Also, introducing the training program as early as possible to managers and customers helps in getting them to buy into the program, which is critical for their role in helping employees learn and transfer skills. It also allows their concerns to be addressed before the program is implemented. Formative evaluation involves pilot testing. Pilot testing refers to the process of previewing the training program with potential trainees and managers or with other customers (persons who are paying for the development of the program). Pilot testing can be used as a “dress rehearsal” to show the program to managers, trainees, and customers. It should also be used for formative evaluation. For example, a group of potential trainees and their managers may be asked to preview or pilot test a web-based training program. As they complete the program, trainees and managers may be asked to provide their opinions about whether graphics, videos, or music used in the program contributed to (or interfered with) learning. They may also be asked how easy it was to move through the program and complete the exercises, and they may be asked to evaluate the quality of feedback the training page 257program provided after they completed the exercises. The information gained from this preview would be used by program developers to improve the program before it is made available to all employees. St. George Bank developed a new web-based training system for bank tellers.7 Before the program was provided to all bank tellers, it was reviewed by a small group who were considered to be typical users of the program. The tellers provided suggestions for improvement, and the instructional designers incorporated their suggestions into the final version of the program. Summative Evaluation Summative evaluation refers to an evaluation conducted to determine the extent to which trainees have changed as a result of participating in the training program. That is, have trainees acquired knowledge, skills, attitudes, behaviors, or other outcomes identified in the training objectives? Summative evaluation may also include measuring the monetary benefits (also known as return on investment or ROI) that the company receives from the program. Summative evaluation usually involves collecting quantitative (numerical) data through tests, ratings of behavior, or objective measures of performance such as volume of sales, accidents, or patents. From the discussion of summative and formative evaluation, it is probably apparent to you why a training program should be evaluated: 1. To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses. This includes determining if the program is meeting the learning objectives, if the quality of the learning environment is satisfactory, and if transfer of training to the job is occurring. 2. To assess whether the content, organization, and administration of the program—including the schedule, accommodations, trainers, and materials—contribute to learning and the use of training content on the job. 3. To identify which trainees benefit most or least from the program. 4. To assist in marketing programs through the collection of information from participants about whether they would recommend the program to others, why they attended the program, and their level of satisfaction with the program. 5. To determine the financial benefits and costs of the program. 6. To compare the costs and benefits of training versus nontraining investments (such as work redesign or a better employee selection system). 7. To compare the costs and benefits of different training programs to choose the best program. QUESTION 3 What      are the parts of the evaluation process?      Your response must be at least 75 words in length. Attached document  Question 4: Option Two:  Many training professionals state that questioning is an art and technique that has to be learned, practiced, and mastered to enhance training, measure understanding, and engage trainees.  The military instructor training courses use a method called the “Apple” technique with “ask, pause, pick, listen, & expand” for each letter.  It is an effective technique and really helps engage the students. Discuss what you think each letter means and how it would fit into your training presentation.  Then explain whether you think this is an effective questioning technique and why or why not.

QUESTION 2

What      should be considered when evaluating a training room?

     Your response must be at least 75 words in length.

REASONS FOR EVALUATING TRAINING
Companies are investing millions of dollars in training programs to help gain a competitive advantage. Companies invest in training because learning creates knowledge; often, it is this knowledge that distinguishes successful companies and employees from those who are not. Research summarizing the results of studies that have examined the linkage between training and human resource outcomes (such as attitudes and motivation, behaviors, and human capital), organizational performance outcomes (performance and productivity), or financial outcomes (profits and financial indicators) has found that companies that conduct training are likely to have more positive human resource outcomes and greater performance outcomes.1 The influence of training is largest for organizational performance outcomes and human resource outcomes and weakest for financial outcomes. This result is not surprising, given that training can least affect an organization’s financial performance and may do so through its influence on human resource practices. As emphasized in Chapter Two, “Strategic Training,” training is more strongly related to organizational outcomes when it is matched with the organization’s business strategy and capital intensity. Because companies have made large dollar investments in training and education and view training as a strategy to be successful, they expect the outcomes or benefits related to training to be measurable.
Norton Health Care’s Practice Manager Development Program focuses on improving practice managers’ leadership, practice operations, patient access to care, and patient experience.2 Program participants share best practices, learn from company leaders, and build a plan for their practice operations. The program has resulted in an increase in the number of new patients accepted, office visits, and patients responding “definitely recommend” on customer surveys following an office visit. At Jiffy Lube, training evaluation involves more than just counting the number of programs employees attend each year.3 Jiffy Lube’s page 256business depends on properly servicing customers’ cars so they are satisfied and will be repeat customers. As a result, Jiffy Lube employees must be certified to perform a service. Jiffy Lube tracks both certifications and their relationship to business results. They track both employee and store-level certifications. Entry-level certifications must be completed within 30 days after an employee is hired. Seventy-six percent of Jiffy Lube’s stores are at 80 to 100 percent certification. Of those stores with 100 percent certification, one-third have average customer sales 9 percent higher than all stores.
Training evaluation provides a way to understand the investment that training produces and provides the information needed to improve training.4 If a company receives an inadequate return on its investment in training, the company will likely reduce its investment in training or look for training providers outside the company who can provide training experiences that improve performance, productivity, customer satisfaction, or whatever other outcomes the company is interested in achieving. Training evaluation provides the data needed to demonstrate that training does offer benefits to the company. Training evaluation involves both formative and summative evaluation.5
Formative Evaluation
Formative evaluation refers to the evaluation of training that takes place during program design and development. That is, formative evaluation helps ensure that (1) the training program is well organized and runs smoothly, and (2) trainees learn and are satisfied with the program. Formative evaluation provides information about how to make the program better; it usually involves collecting qualitative data about the program. Qualitative data include opinions, beliefs, and feelings about the program. Formative evaluations ask customers, employees, managers, and subject-matter experts (SMEs) their opinions on the description of the training content and objectives and the program design. These people are also asked to evaluate the clarity and ease of use of a part of the training program that is demonstrated to them in the way that it will be delivered (e.g., online, face-to-face, or using video).6 The formative evaluation is conducted either individually or in groups before the program is made available to the rest of the company. Trainers may also be involved to measure the time requirements of the program. As a result of the formative evaluation, training content may be changed to be more accurate, easier to understand, or more appealing. The training method can be adjusted to improve learning (e.g., provide trainees with more opportunities to practice or give feedback). Also, introducing the training program as early as possible to managers and customers helps in getting them to buy into the program, which is critical for their role in helping employees learn and transfer skills. It also allows their concerns to be addressed before the program is implemented.
Formative evaluation involves pilot testing. Pilot testing refers to the process of previewing the training program with potential trainees and managers or with other customers (persons who are paying for the development of the program). Pilot testing can be used as a “dress rehearsal” to show the program to managers, trainees, and customers. It should also be used for formative evaluation. For example, a group of potential trainees and their managers may be asked to preview or pilot test a web-based training program. As they complete the program, trainees and managers may be asked to provide their opinions about whether graphics, videos, or music used in the program contributed to (or interfered with) learning. They may also be asked how easy it was to move through the program and complete the exercises, and they may be asked to evaluate the quality of feedback the training page 257program provided after they completed the exercises. The information gained from this preview would be used by program developers to improve the program before it is made available to all employees. St. George Bank developed a new web-based training system for bank tellers.7 Before the program was provided to all bank tellers, it was reviewed by a small group who were considered to be typical users of the program. The tellers provided suggestions for improvement, and the instructional designers incorporated their suggestions into the final version of the program.
Summative Evaluation
Summative evaluation refers to an evaluation conducted to determine the extent to which trainees have changed as a result of participating in the training program. That is, have trainees acquired knowledge, skills, attitudes, behaviors, or other outcomes identified in the training objectives? Summative evaluation may also include measuring the monetary benefits (also known as return on investment or ROI) that the company receives from the program. Summative evaluation usually involves collecting quantitative (numerical) data through tests, ratings of behavior, or objective measures of performance such as volume of sales, accidents, or patents.
From the discussion of summative and formative evaluation, it is probably apparent to you why a training program should be evaluated:
1. To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses. This includes determining if the program is meeting the learning objectives, if the quality of the learning environment is satisfactory, and if transfer of training to the job is occurring.
2. To assess whether the content, organization, and administration of the program—including the schedule, accommodations, trainers, and materials—contribute to learning and the use of training content on the job.
3. To identify which trainees benefit most or least from the program.
4. To assist in marketing programs through the collection of information from participants about whether they would recommend the program to others, why they attended the program, and their level of satisfaction with the program.
5. To determine the financial benefits and costs of the program.
6. To compare the costs and benefits of training versus nontraining investments (such as work redesign or a better employee selection system).
7. To compare the costs and benefits of different training programs to choose the best program.
QUESTION 3

What      are the parts of the evaluation process?

     Your response must be at least 75 words in length.

Attached document 
Question 4: Option Two:  Many training professionals state that questioning is an art and technique that has to be learned, practiced, and mastered to enhance training, measure understanding, and engage trainees.  The military instructor training courses use a method called the “Apple” technique with “ask, pause, pick, listen, & expand” for each letter.  It is an effective technique and really helps engage the students. Discuss what you think each letter means and how it would fit into your training presentation.  Then explain whether you think this is an effective questioning technique and why or why not.

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