RUN Symbolic Logic Philosophy Questions; Philosophy homework solution
I’m studying and need help with a Chemistry question to help me learn .
We are doing titrations and dilutions using the program called Minteq . My professor has also given the steps on how to solve it . PROBLEM-1Initial Step – Using MINTEQ, determine the composition of the river water by specifying the given ALK and pH and running the program to find that TOTCO3 and TOTH from the output under the “EQUILIBRATED MASS DISTRIBUTION” option . To do so 1 . Open MINTEQ2 . Set pH at fixed at and enter 7 . 53 . Go to the top bar and select “”PARAMETERS”” and then “”SPECIFY ALKALINITY”” . Here, select the units (meq/L) and enter the value given in the problem statement . Note the difference in units though! Finally, click OK4 . Run MINTEQ and in the output window, click on “”EQUILIBRATED MASS DISTRIBUTION”” AND WRITE DOWN THE THE TOTAL DISSOLVED CONCENTRATIONS OFCO3-2 AND H+ . These are TOTCO3 and TOTH . Second stepUse Visual MINTEQ again, and representing the determined river chemical composition as the ‘baseline’ solution, explore various additions of the wastewater to the river water to identify the mixing ratio that causes the pH to be 6 . 0 . Use Visual MINTEQ titration tool . Steps are as follows Start a new MINTEQ solution, and make sure to delete the alkalinity value entered earlier, as well as the pH of 7 . 5Now, set up the pH to calculated based on mass balanceIn the component window, enter the concentrations of TOTCO3 (as CO3-2) and TOTH (as H+) determined above . That is Next, go to “Multi-Problem sweep” on the top bar of MINTEQSelect titration / mixing with a titrant with defined composition and then set up the state of titration steps to some number (e . g . 41)Going down the screen, under component/species, select H+For the type (which type?) – select activityThen click ADD . Go back on the top section of the screen, and on the right of the “titration/mixing” option selected earlier, click on “Go to Titration Manager”On this screen, do the followingVolume (mL) of solution to titrate (e . g . 1000)Volume (mL) of titrant (e . g . 0 . 2)Concentration unit of titrant mol/LCheck the box for titration not to start till second additionDefine titrant composition by entering the following Enter molar conc . (e . g . mol/L), and then the component (e . g . H+) and click on save and next . Enter the second component (e . g . SO4-2), repeat the steps above as for H+, but selecting sulfate as component . For this problem, you will stop here . Click on “Save and go back to multi/sweep menu”Then click on “Save and back”Now back to the main menu – RUN MINTEQFrom the output, select “SELECTED SWEEP RESULTS” and in the table, the titration number corresponding to pH 6 . 0 or the closest to 6 . 0, if the exact pH is not shownDetermine the volume of titrant added to obtain the pH of 6Determine the dilution factorPROBLEM-2The dose of OH- that must be added to bring the pH to 5 . 5 can be equated with the decline in TOTH between the initial condition and the neutralized solution . Knowing TOTSO4, TOTFe, and pH, we can specify the inputsNext, use the “Solid phases and excluded species” menu to exclude consideration of the species we wish to ignore based on recommendations in the problem statementRun MINTEQ . The results should give something likeTOTH = 0 . 529M at pH 0 . 8 andTOTH = -198M at pH 5 . 5The difference between these two TOTH values corresponds to the molar concentration of OH- to be added . Since 1 mole of lime (Ca(OH)2) contributes 2 moles of OH-, the required lime dose to supply the needed [OH-] would be equivalent to half of the calculated concentration in step-X The titration curve can be generated using Visual MINTEQ by instructing the program to compute the pH as a function of lime dose, resulting in the following curveInputs (SO4-2 = 0 . 4M, Fe+2 = 0 . 1M, Ca+2 = 0 . Excluded species CaSO4 and FeSO4Ionic strength fixed at 0 . 1M”
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