Geologic Processes and Environmental Test: Environmental Science Answers 2021

Geologic Processes and Environmental Test: Environmental Science Answers 2021

Question Title:

Geologic Processes and Environmental Test

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Question 3
1 pts
The concept of ?Intergenerational Equity? is important in engineering because of the longevity of our
technologies and projects.
Yes, because whatever we do now in engineering future generations will inherit ? the good side especially.
Yes, because whatever we do now in engineering future generations will inherit ? both the good and bad sides.
Yes, because whatever we do now in engineering future generations will inherit ? the bad side especially.
No, this principle has no relevance for engineering whatsoever.
O None of the above.
Question 4
1 pts
Carrying capacity is an important concept in ecology and sustainable development. It is best defined
as:
O Carrying capacity is a measure of the use of the renewable resources by society relative to stocks and flows provided
by an ecosystem
Carrying capacity is a measure of the use of the non-renewable resources by society relative to stocks and flows
provided by an ecosystem
O Carrying capacity is a measure of the ability of an ecosystem to absorb pollution and wastes from the use of non-
renewable resources by society
Carrying capacity is a measure of the use of the resource stocks and flows provided by an ecosystem relative to the
remaining resources needed by the ecosystem for stability and regeneration
o
None of the above
Question 2
1 pts
The definition of sustainable development proposed by the World Commission on Environment and
Development (WCED), as Chaired by Gro Harlem Brundtland, is best stated as:
O economic development that meets the needs of the present and still allows a good economic future for the next
generation
environmental protection that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to
enjoy a sustainable environment
O reducing social impacts in the current generation so that future generations enjoy a more sustainable society
development that allows the current generation to thrive without hurting the ability of future generations to generate their
own needs
O None of the above
Question 1
1 pts
The ?IPAT? equation is very important in sustainability. Which of the following is the best description for
it?
IPAT is a simplified but practical equation to quantify sustainable development
IPAT is a conceptual approach to understand the links between population, affluence and technology towards
unsustainable development
O IPAT is a conceptual approach to examine the links between population, affluence and technology towards sustainable
development
O IPAT is a conceptual approach to assess the impact on our planet as a function of population, affluence and technology
All of the above
Question 8
1 pts
Limestone is a metamorphic rock. True or false?
True
False
Question 7
1 pts
In the mining industry, a mineral resource is specifically defined as:
A mineral resource is an enriched volume of rock containing certain metals or minerals which could never be exploited
by society
A mineral resource is a volume of rock containing pure metals or minerals which could be potentially exploited by
society
A mineral resource is an enriched volume of rock containing certain metals or minerals which could be potentially
exploited by society
O A mineral resource is an enriched volume of rock containing a single metal or mineral which could be potentially
exploited by society
O None of the above
Question 6
1 pts
Weathering is an important process in geology. The products of weathering can best be described as:
Detrital products of smaller grain size.
Chemical products of identical composition
Chemical products of different composition but similar grain size
Chemical products of different composition but different grain size
O Detrital or chemical products of different composition and grain size
Question 15
1 pts
The table below gives the carbon intensity of each state?s electricity network for the year 2014/15.
Choose the best option below which explains the reasons for the carbon intensity. (Note that the ACT
is combined with NSW and the NT is treated as a state for this question)
VIC
NSW-ACT
QLD
SA
WA
TAS
NT
t CO2-
e/MWhe
1.25
0.96
0.92
0.63
0.78
0.14 0.75
All states except TAS rely mostly on coal
The eastern mainland states (QLD, NSW-ACT, VIC) are coal-dominant while all others are gas-dominant
The eastern mainland states (QLD, NSW-ACT, VIC) are coal-dominant while all others are hydroelectricity-dominant
The eastern mainland states (QLD, NSW-ACT, VIC) are coal-dominant while SA-WA-NT are gas-dominant
O VIC is brown coal-dominant, QLD and NSW-ACT are black coal-dominant, SA-WA-NT are gas-dominant but TAS is
hydroelectricity-dominant
Question 13
1 pts
Oil has been an important energy source for one and a half centuries, yet its future is being
increasingly challenged. Which of the following options best describes the constraints facing the oil
industry?
O conventional petroleum reservoirs are harder to find, much deeper in geology, often in deeper waters, are increasingly
poorer in quality (especially toxic impurities such as hydrogen sulfide)
EROEl values are declining
air pollution and climate change are major problems
electric vehicles are becoming increasingly competitive to conventional vehicles and preferred by sustainability
conscious consumers
O All of the above
Question 12
1 pts
A common unit for electrical energy is the ?watt-hour?. Convert 1 TWh to joules:
O 3.6 TJ
O 3.6 GJ
O 3.6 PJ
0 27.8 GJ
0 27.8 MJ
Question 11
1 pts
The following are ranked lists of carbon intensity (in units of t CO2-e/t fuel) for various energy sources
(left is lowest, right is highest). Which option is the most correct?
biodiesel, petrol, brown coal, diesel fuel oil
O brown coal, coking coal, anthracite coal, diesel fuel oil
brown coal, bituminous coal, automotive diesel, heavy vehicle diesel fuel oil
ethanol, dry wood, kerosene jetfuel, brown coal
O None of the above
Question 10
1 pts
A very common method of mining is the use of open pits to extract ore. The main environmental
disadvantages of this could best be described as:
O generation of large volumes of waste rock
potential sterilisation of land
complete removal of an ecosystem and its biodiversity
makes uneconomic projects suddenly economic
Answers (a) (b) (c) are reasonable
Question 9
1 pts
In the mining industry, an ore reserve is specifically defined as:
An ore reserve is an enriched volume of rock containing certain metals or minerals which could never be exploited by
society
An ore reserve is an enriched volume of rock containing certain metals or minerals which could be potentially exploited
by society
An ore reserve is a volume of rock containing pure metals or minerals which could be potentially exploited by society
An ore reserve is an enriched volume of rock containing a single metal or mineral which could be potentially exploited
by society
None of the above
Question 18
1 pts
Embodied water is also known as virtual water. It is possible to have a value of virtual water less than
one? Choose the best response below.
Yes, as this accounts for evaporative losses
O Yes, as this accounts for leaks in the system
No, losses in the system means that virtual water can never be less than one
No, losses in the system means that virtual water can never be more than one
O None of the above
Question 17
1 pts
Urban areas lead to the severe degradation of streams and their aquatic ecosystems. Water Sensitive
Urban Design (WSUD) address this by:
increasing water storage in the catchment (e.g. wetlands)
O implementing technologies which provide for treatment of stormwater before it enters a stream (e.g. swales, biofilters)
encourages alternative sources of water to minimise pressure on external water supply catchments
removing toxic pollutants such as heavy metals from stormwater
O All of the above
Question 16
1 pts
A key outcome of Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is a reduction in flood frequency but an
increase in flood peak. True or false?
O True
O False
Question 14
1 pts
The following are ranked lists of ERo El values for various energy sources (left is highest, right is
lowest). Which option is the most correct?
coal, hydroelectricity, solar photovoltaic panels, ethanol
hydroelectricity, conventional oil, solar photovoltaic panels, ethanol
nuclear, tar sands, shale oil, conventional oil, solar photovoltaic panels
nuclear, wind, solar thermal, biodiesel
None of the above
Question 15
1 pts
The table below gives the carbon intensity of each state?s electricity network for the year 2014/15.
Choose the best option below which explains the reasons for the carbon intensity. (Note that the ACT
is combined with NSW and the NT is treated as a state for this question)
VIC
NSW-ACT
QLD
SA
WA
TAS
NT
t CO2-
e/MWhe
1.25
0.96
0.92
0.63
0.78
0.14 0.75
O All states except TAS rely mostly on coal
The eastern mainland states (QLD, NSW-ACT, VIC) are coal-dominant while all others are gas-dominant
The eastern mainland states (QLD, NSW-ACT, VIC) are coal-dominant while all others are hydroelectricity-dominant
The eastern mainland states (QLD, NSW-ACT, VIC) are coal-dominant while SA-WA-NT are gas-dominant
O VIC is brown coal-dominant, QLD and NSW-ACT are black coal-dominant, SA-WA-NT are gas-dominant but TAS is
hydroelectricity-dominant
Question 19
1 pts
There is 100 times more usable water in groundwater than surface water. True or false?
True
O False
Question 20
1 pts
Salinity is a key measure of water quality and whether or not a water source may be suitable for
humans for drinking. For the best quality, drinking water in Australia should be less than:
O 600 ug/L
600 g/L
600 S/cm
600 g/mL
0.6 g/L
Question 24
1 pts
Global wheat production per capita has been stable for nearly 50 years. True or false?
True
O False
Question 23
1 pts
The world produces enough reasonable quality food for everyone but the primary causes of severe
famine remains drought and/or poor agricultural land management. True or false?
O True
False
Question 22
1 pts
The ?Green Revolution? is best described as the rise of organic agriculture and permaculture from the
1980s ? true or false?
O True
O False
Question 21
1 pts
Global greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture are much less than those from the electricity sector.
True or false?
True
False
Question 25
1 pts
In agriculture, greenhouse gas emissions are directly released from:
O (a) methane from cows
O (b) nitrous oxide from fertilizers
O (C) carbon dioxide from soil
O (d) Answers (a) and (b) are both reasonable
O (e) Answers (a) (b) and (c) are reasonable

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