PHYS 123 Embry Riddle Aeronautical University Paper Airplane Project: Environmental Science Answers 2021

PHYS 123 Embry Riddle Aeronautical University Paper Airplane Project: Environmental Science Answers 2021

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PHYS 123 Embry Riddle Aeronautical University Paper Airplane Project

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PHYS 123
Paper Airplane Project ? Part 3
Glider Design Testing Activity
Testing Instructions and Guidance
Testing Criteria (based on competition rules):
1. The glider?s materials will be restricted to a single, complete sheet of 8.5 x 11-inch standard
2.
3.
4.
5.
weight copy paper (20 lb bond / standard A4 format ? mass = 4.5 grams).
The glider will be modified by folding only ? no addition of other materials, ripping, gluing or
cutting.
The glider must be launched from ground level.
The distance design must be launched by one person throwing the aircraft unaided from behind a
straight launch line marked on the ground.
The duration design must be launched by one person throwing the aircraft unaided from a
reasonably static position with both feet firmly on the ground.
Other Testing Considerations
To best mimic the competition environment and conditions (an aircraft hangar), do your best to
identify an appropriate and accessible testing area to achieve large heights and distances with the
glider. A large indoor location with high ceilings is ideal (like a gymnasium, aircraft hangar, etc.). Do
not perform tests indoors in locations that do not allow the glider to achieve its maximum potential
flight distance or duration (e.g., hallway, living room, garage, etc). Since outdoors will likely be your
best option, perform tests in large, open field (like a park or ball field) on a dry day with minimal wind,
if possible. Plan ahead by consulting the weather forecast and choosing an optimal weather day.
If possible, recruit an assistant to help with the testing, and to also video or take pictures of some of
the test flights to include with your submission of the testing results to your team.
Testing Materials
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
8.5 x 11-inch standard weight copy paper (standard weight = 10 pounds per 1000 sheets)
A tool to measure flight distance (meter or yard sticks, tape measure, etc.)
A timer of any kind, accurate to 1 second
Testing worksheet (at the end of this file)
A pen and a pencil
A small ruler for measuring glider wing dimensions
Testing Procedure
Review the steps carefully before beginning your testing, and think about how you will carry out these
steps to minimize uncertainty and error.
Testing Part I
1. In the worksheet below, document the name of each design, the hypothesis for each design, and
the description for the method for imparting thrust for each design to maximize its performance
(distance or flight duration) as appropriate (NOTE: these items were completed in part 2 of the
project).
2. Build 3 test gliders of each of the two designs per the stated restrictions in Testing Criteria and
Considerations above. Number each test glider with a pen, minimizing the amount of ink used.
3. Devise and document the method* you will use to measure and calculate the total wing area. Then,
calculate and record the total wing area in square centimeters (cm2) of each test glider in the
appropriate table in the testing worksheet. The glider mass, equal to a single sheet of standard
copy paper, is already recorded in the testing worksheet.
*To calculate the total wing area, you must devise a method for how to measure (using the small ruler) and then
calculate the area of the wings based on their geometric shape. You may need to do some research on the geometry
of common shapes and area calculations, and collaborate with your teammates to confirm the correctness of your
procedure. Note: 1 in2 = 6.45 cm2
4. Based on the measurements in 3. and 4., use the equation for wing loading (refer to Module 1
mini-lecture 3) to calculate the wing loading, in g/cm2, for each test glider. Record the wing loading
for each test glider in the appropriate table in the testing worksheet.
Testing Part II
1. Perform the tests for each design at your determined test site.
2. Before collecting any data, develop some skill and consistency by doing some preliminary trial
flights with one of the test planes for each design, abiding by the testing criteria section above, and
using the hypothesized methods for imparting thrust. You may find that the thrust methods need
to be ?tweaked? a little for optimization of the flight. Record some comments and observations for
this preliminary testing.
3. Test the distance design glider using the following steps:
a. Launch the test glider abiding by the testing criteria section above, utilizing the desired thrust
method.
b. Measure and record the distance flown in the worksheet below, measured as the straight line
from the launch line to the landing point (point where it strikes the ground), to the nearest
tenth (one decimal place). You may measure the distance in any units, but you must convert
the distance to meters (m), and record the distance in meters in the worksheet. Conversions:
1 foot = 0.305 meters; 1 inch = 0.0254 meters
c. Make and record some observations of the flight characteristics of the test glider during flight
(relative speed, lift, drag, stability, control, center of gravity, etc.).
d. Repeat steps a-c above until you have 5 trials for each of the three distance test gliders.
4. Test the duration design glider using the following steps:
a) Launch the test glider abiding by the testing criteria section above, utilizing the desired thrust
method, while simultaneously timing the flight duration.
b) Start the timer when the glider is released, and stop the timer when the glider hits the
ground.
c) Record the flight time in the worksheet to the nearest whole second.
d) Make and record some observations of the flight characteristics of the test glider during flight
(speed, lift, drag, stability, control, center of gravity, etc.).
e) Repeat steps a-e above until you have 5 trials for each of the three duration test gliders.
Calculations and Graphs
1. Calculate and record the average flight distance for each of the distance design test gliders to the
nearest tenth of a meter (m).
2. Calculate and record the average flight time for each of the duration design test gliders to the
nearest tenth of a second.
3. Create a graph (by hand or on the computer) of the average distance vs. test glider for each of the
distance design test gliders. Graph average distance on the y-axis, and test glider number on the xaxis.
4. Create a graph (by hand or on the computer) of the average flight time vs. test glider for each of
the flight duration design test gliders. Graph average flight time on the y-axis, and test glider
number on the x-axis.
5. Insert the graphs and any photos or videos taken of the test flights on the last page of the
worksheet. (HINT: If you made the graphs by hand, take a picture of them, save them as an image
file, and import them into the document.)
Variability, Uncertainty and Error
Record all possible sources of variability, uncertainty, and/or error in your testing in the worksheet.
(consider materials, testing environment, and testing methods).
Conclusions
In the worksheet, state the best average distance or time achieved in the testing. Also, summarize
some conclusions based on the testing of each design. For example, make comparisons of the data
and calculations for each test glider; analyze trends in the average distance / time for each of the test
gliders as displayed in the graphs; compare the flight characteristics of the best performing glider of
each design in comparison to the other test gliders of the same design. Include an evaluation of the
correctness of the hypotheses for each plane design, and which test plane of each design performed
the best. Provide justification for the evaluations. In addition, discuss the degree of trust you have in
the results based on the variability, uncertainty, and error in the testing.
Testing worksheet on following pages
REMOVE THE ABOVE INSTRUCTION PAGES PRIOR TO SUBMISSION
Glider Testing Worksheet
Tester Name: Click here to enter text.
Distance Design Testing
Name of Distance Design
Click here to enter text.
Hypothesis for Distance Design
Click here to enter text.
Thrust Method for Distance Design (be specific!)
Click here to enter text.
[NOTE: The three items above were completed in part 2 of the project]
Description of Testing Site:
Click here to enter text.
Data and Calculations for Distance Design
Distance Design Wing Loading
(enter values to the nearest tenth in the indicated units of measurement)
Test Glider
Number or
Name
Total
Glider
Mass
(g)
Click here to
enter text.
4.5
Click here to
enter text.
4.5
Click here to
enter text.
4.5
WingArea
(cm2)
Click here
to enter
text.
Click here
to enter
text.
Click here
to enter
text.
Description of the method used for calculating wing area
Click here to enter text.
Wing Loading
(g/cm2)
Click here to
enter text.
Click here to
enter text.
Click here to
enter text.
Distance Design Glide Distance
Measure the straight line distance from take-off point to landing point (point where the glider strikes the
ground). Enter values to the nearest tenth (one decimal place) of a meter.
Test Glider
Number or
Name
Click here to
enter text.
Click here to
enter text.
Click here to
enter text.
Trial 1
Click
here to
enter
text.
Click
here to
enter
text.
Click
here to
enter
text.
Trial 2
Click
here to
enter
text.
Click
here to
enter
text.
Click
here to
enter
text.
Trial 3
Click
here to
enter
text.
Click
here to
enter
text.
Click
here to
enter
text.
Trial
4
Trial 5
Click
here to
enter
text.
Click
here to
enter
text.
Click
here to
enter
text.
Click
here to
enter
text.
Click
here to
enter
text.
Click
here to
enter
text.
(meters)
Observations
Click here to enter text.
Sources of Variability, Uncertainty and Error
Click here to enter text.
Conclusions (include the best average distance achieved in the testing)
Click here to enter text.
Average
Distance
Click here to
enter text.
Click here to
enter text.
Click here to
enter text.
Flight Duration Design Testing
Name of Flight Duration Design
Click here to enter text.
Hypothesis for Flight Duration Design
Click here to enter text.
Thrust Method for Flight Duration Design (be specific!)
Click here to enter text.
[NOTE: The three items above were completed in part 2 of the project]
Description of Testing Site (if different than for distance design testing):
Click here to enter text.
Data and Calculations for Flight Duration Design
Duration Design Wing Loading
(enter values to the nearest tenth in the indicated units of measurement)
Test Glider
Number or
Name
Click here to
enter text.
Click here to
enter text.
Click here to
enter text.
Total
Glider
Mass
(g)
Click here
to enter
text.
Click here
to enter
text.
Click here
to enter
text.
Total Wing
Area
(cm2)
Wing Loading
(g/cm2)
Click here to enter
text.
Click here to
enter text.
Click here to enter
text.
Click here to
enter text.
Click here to enter
text.
Click here to
enter text.
Description of the method used for calculating wing area
Click here to enter text.
Duration Design Flight Time
Start the timer when the glider is released, and stop the timer when the glider hits the ground. Enter flight
times to the nearest whole second. Calculate the average flight times to the nearest tenth of a second.
Test Glider
Number or
Name
Click here to
enter text.
Click here to
enter text.
Click here to
enter text.
Trial 1
Trial 2
Trial 3
Trial
4
Trial 5
Average Flight
Time (seconds)
Click here Click here Click here Click here Click here
Click here to
to enter
to enter
to enter
to enter
to enter
enter text.
text.
text.
text.
text.
text.
Click here Click here Click here Click here Click here
Click here to
to enter
to enter
to enter
to enter
to enter
enter text.
text.
text.
text.
text.
text.
Click here Click here Click here Click here Click here
Click here to
to enter
to enter
to enter
to enter
to enter
enter text.
text.
text.
text.
text.
text.
Observations
Click here to enter text.
Sources of Variability, Uncertainty and Error
Click here to enter text.
Conclusions (include the best average flight time achieved in the testing)
Click here to enter text.
Graphs and Images
Test Glider vs. Average Distance Graph for Distance Design (insert graph HERE)
Test Glider vs. Average Flight Time Graph for Duration Design (insert graph HERE)
Insert Photos or Videos of Design Build and Testing HERE

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