GG 282 Wilfrid Laurier University Geomorphology Applied Solved Practice: Geology Answers 2021

GG 282 Wilfrid Laurier University Geomorphology Applied Solved Practice: Geology Answers 2021

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GG 282 Wilfrid Laurier University Geomorphology Applied Solved Practice

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Geography 282
Winter 2021
Introduction
There are four sections to the examination. Follow the instructions in each section.
In Section One there are a series of questions based on the lecture materials on mass movements. The
responses in Section One are multiple choice.
In Section Two, there are a series of short answer and multiple choice questions on a range of geomorphic
features and processes. A Google Earth file is used in Section Two to show a series of locations.
In Section Three these are long answer questions based on Google Earth locations.
In Section Four there is a question describing the characteristics of a given soil order.
Using Google Earth
There is a Google Earth file that must be used as
part of this examination/assignment. Google
Earth files have a kml extension.
To open these files, start Google Earth (or
Google Earth Pro) and then under ?File?, select
?Open? and select the appropriate file. When a
kml file is opened there will be a series of
labelled locations listed under the heading
?Places?. To navigate to one of the locations,
double click on the label (e.g. Location 4). The
locations can be viewed from directly overhead
or from an oblique perspective. In the image to
the right we are looking at an example of a
location. On the top of the following page we
see an oblique view of the same location.
Navigation is done by using the mouse or the navigation controls on the screen
(shown at right). The upper dial can be used to alter the perspective, the lower
dial to alter position.
To adjust the vertical (elevation) exaggeration and the quality of the images, open
the ?Tools? menu item, select ?Options? and Google Earth Options Window will
open, with the 3D View tab visible. The elevation differences can be adjusted by
changing the numeric value in the highlighted area below.
In Google Earth it is possible to view imagery from different dates, by selecting the
icon from the menu bar. This will open a slider called a timeline that can be used to
imagery from specific dates. The format of the timeline slider varies between different
of Google Earth, but in each it is possible to toggle between dates.
clock
select
versions
Street or ground level views can also be seen in Google Earth. The pegman icon can be
dragged to the streets or ground in some locations.
It is possible to measure distances between locations by using the ruler tool. To activate
the ruler tool, click on the ruler icon to open the
Ruler dialogue box. You can select either Line or
Path. A Line will have two points (a start and end
point), while a path may be comprised of many
points. If you were digitizing along a stream
channel to measure the channel length, the path
tool would be used.
If you digitize a line or path you
can save it. When you save the
path or line it will be saved in the
temporary places folder and it will
be visible in the table of contents to
the left of the screen under Places.
If you select the saved path or line
you can display an elevation profile
(a cross-section). To display the
cross-section select the saved path
or line and right click, then select
elevation profile.
An example of a digitized line is
shown to the right and an elevation
profile (cross-section) below.
You may find it helpful in some of the multiple choice and short answer questions to examine gradients by
using the above tool. When using Google Earth for this examination it may also be useful to have the ?Borders
and Labels? Layer activated, the other Layers can be disabled.
Files
The files for the examination assignment are in a MyLS folder called GG282 Final. In that folder there are the
following files:
1)
GG282 Final 2021 Questions.pdf
This document, which contains the instructions and questions for the examination assignment.
2) Locations.kml
A Google Earth file that has locations that are used in Section Two and Three ?Locations_2021.kmz?.
3)
Podzolic Soils of Canada.pdf
2011 paper written by P. Sanborn, L. Lamontagne, and W. Hendershot titled Podzolic soils of Canada:
Genesis, distribution, and classification?, published in the Canadian Journal of Soil Science Volume 91 pages
843-880.
4)
Luvisolic Soils of Canada.pdf
2011 paper written by D. Pennock, A. Bedard-Haughn, and V. Viaud titled ?Chernozemic soils of
Canada: Genesis, distribution, and classification?, published in the Canadian Journal of Soil Science Volume
91 pages 719-747.
5)
Chernozemic Soils of Canada.pdf
2011 paper written by L. M. Lavkulich1 and J. M. Arocena titled ?Luvisolic soilsof Canada: Genesis,
distribution, and classification?, published in the Canadian Journal of Soil Science Volume 91 pages 781- 806.
Type your name and ID below to indicate you are submitting your own work for the GG282 Final Exam:
TYPE ALL ANSWERS INTO THIS DOCUMENT! FOR MULTIPLE
CHOICE QUESTIONS, HIGHLIGHT AND BOLD YOUR RESPONSE.
For example:
1. The name of your Prof for GG282 is
a) Corey Conners
b) Dr. Bitton
c) Helix
d) Jared Keeso
If you think the correct answer is ?b)?, highlight and bold this answer, as seen below.
1. The name of your Prof for gG282 is
a) Corey Conners
b) Dr. Bitton
c) Helix
d) Jared Keeso
Section One (/12)
This section has 12 multiple choice questions related to mass movement processes and landforms.
Multiple Choice Questions (/12)
1. A fine textured soil or sediment is present on a hillslope. The material has a silty clay texture. Initially the
material has a low moisture content. There is a long extended period of rainy weather and the moisture
content of the sediment is increased. As the moisture content of the sediment increases to a very high value:
a. the shear strength of the material will increase
b. the consistency of the sediment will change and it will begin to behave like a highly viscous mixture of
sediment and water
c. the probability of a mass movement will be reduced due to an increase in cohesion
d. the material will adopt the characteristics of a hard brittle solid
2.
A granular material (soil or sediment) on a slope has a low moisture content. Following a long period of
rainfall, the moisture content of the material is increased to a very high percentage by volume. The shear
strength of the granular material:
a.
b.
c.
d.
will not change because moisture content does not influence the strength of granular materials
will be reduced because the increased pore water pressure reduces the effective normal stress
will increase due to a rise in cohesion
will be reduced because the moisture will act as a cementing agent
3. A topple style of mass movement involves:
a.
b.
c.
d.
a forward rotation of slabs of cohesive material
the downslope movement of a slurry of water and sediment in a channel
a failure of cohesive sediments along a curved plane
a failure of cohesive materials along a planar inclined surface
4. Which one of the following types of mass movements typically has the lowest water content?
a.
b.
c.
d.
rock slide (translational)
debris flow
earth slump or earthflow
soil creep
5. Relative to one another, in which one of the following types of mass movements would the displaced
material typically move at the highest speed?
a.
b.
c.
d.
soil creep
earth flow
rotational slump
rock fall
6. A translational slide involves:
a.
b.
c.
d.
a forward rotation of slabs of cohesive material
the downslope movement of a slurry of water and sediment in a channel
a failure of cohesive sediments along a curved plane
a failure of cohesive materials along a planar inclined surface
7. In southern Ontario which one of the following mechanism is likely the most common cause of soil creep?
a. The expansion and contraction of the soil due to hydration (swelling) and dehydration (contraction)
cycles.
b. The expansion and contraction of the soil due to daily cycles of temperature from warm
(expansion) to cold (contraction)
c. The expansion and contraction of the soil due to the seasonal development of salt crystals
(expansion) and their subsequent dissolution (contraction) in the soil zone
d. The expansion and contraction of the soil due to the development of ice (expansion) and its subsequent
melting (contraction) in the soil zone
8.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Which one of the following types of mass movements would be considered a slow mass wasting event?
debris flow
rock slide
soil creep
rock fall
9.
Which one of the following types of mass movements would be considered a rapid mass wasting event?
a. debris flow
b. earthflow
c. soil creep
d. bedrock creep
10. Relative to one another, in which one of the following types of mass movements would the displaced
material typically move at the highest speed? a. soil creep
b. earth flow
c. rotational slump
d. rock fall
11. Which one of the following is not a cause or a contributing factor to a landslide (mass movement)
development?
a. weak, sensitive, or weathered geological materials
b. erosion at the base of a slope by geomorphic processes (e.g. fluvial, wave, or glacial erosion)
c. loading of a slope at its crest
d. cementation of sediment due to evaporation of moisture
12. Moderate to rapid mass movements can occur on relatively gentle gradients under the right conditions. A
lateral spread is an example of this type of failure. In eastern Ontario and southern Quebec these types of
mass movements occur in fine textured sediments. The sediments involved are:
a.
b.
c.
d.
glaciolacustrine deposits
clays and silts that were deposited in marine conditions
fine textured glacial tills derived earlier glaciolacustrine deposits
weathered and fractured shale bedrock units that have been reduced to fine regolith
Section Two (/9)
Open the Google Earth file Locations_2021.kml. There are a series of locations labelled in sequence (e.g.
Location 1). Respond to the following questions by highlighting and bolding your answers the Multiple Choice
questions in this Word document. The multiple choice questions are worth 1 mark each.
Location One
Go to Location 1. View the location from an overhead perspective and an oblique angle. Adjust the vertical
exaggeration to optimize your view of the landscape. There is a very steep cliff east of the location marker.
The bedrock exposed in that cliff is igneous rock. In this immediate area the mountains are volcanoes and the
most recent eruption in the area was approximately 11,000 years ago. The area can experience substantial
seismic activity.
16. What is the dominant mass movement process that is occurring at this location?
a. Flow
b. Creep
c. Falls
d. Rotational Sliding
17. Which one of the following terms is appropriate to describe the slope on which the Location 1 marker is
placed?
a. Felsenmeer
b. Pediment
c. Planation Surface
d. Talus
18. In January of the year 1700 there was an earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 9.0 that influenced
this region. In the event of a similar very large seismic event which one of the following types of mass
movement could be triggered from the area of Location 1.
a. Mudflow
b. Earthflow
c. Rockslide or Rock Avalanche
d. Lateral Spread
Location Two
Go to Location 2. The marker is on a landform. Examine the terrain surrounding the marker.
19. The landform at Location 2 is:
a. an Alluvial Fan
b. a Debris Cone or Debris Flow Fan
c. a Talus Cone
d. a Colluvial Delta
20. Which of the following set of terms would best describe the materials that are found at Location 2?
a. silt and clay
b. well sorted sand
c. well rounded pebbles
d. angular pebbles, cobbles and boulders
Location Three
Go to Location 3, use the time slider to view the area over a series of dates. The slope at Location 3 was
unstable for a long period of time. In late March of 2014 there was a major mass movement at the site. View
the imagery from March 31, 2014, this imagery was captured 9 days after a major event.
21. What type of mass movement has occurred at Location 3 in late March of 2014?
a. Translational Rockslide
b. Debris Flow
c. Rotational Slump that turned into an Earth Flow
d. Rock Avalanche
22. View the images before and after the major mass movement event. Which one of the following did
not occur during or after this mass movement?
a. Damming of a river by the mass movement deposits
b. Burial of a portion of a community
c. The closing of a highway corridor
d. The stabilization of the slope on the north bank of the river
Location Four
Go to Location 4. The marker at this location is centred on a group of buildings adjacent to a roadway at the
base of a steep slope. Examine the area around the marker using the imagery from December 31, 3005 and
April 22, 2013. Then use the streetview to view the location (house) where the marker is positioned, to do this
drag the pegman icon to the road and then pivot the view in the direction of the building location. The
streetview imagery dates from May 2018. Then view the overhead imagery from July 22 of 2015. You should
view similar mass movements from the same area.
23. What type of mass movement events occurred at this location between 2006 and 2014?
a. Translational Rockslide
b. Rock fall and topples
c. Rotational Slides and Slumps
d. Rock Avalanche
Location Five
25.
Go to Location 5. View the area using the imagery from August 15, 2010. Examine the same area
using imagery from dates before and after August of 2010. What type of geomorphic event influenced this
area?
a.
b.
c.
d.
earthflow
debris flow
glacial outburst flood
debris avalanche
Section Three ? Long Answer Questions (/24)
Type your answers below each question.
Location 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d
Go to Location 6. Adjust the time slider so you are viewing the image that is dated for October
3, 2016. The marker labelled Location 6 is located on a valley glacier called the Athabasca Glacier. This is
found in Jasper National Park in Alberta. The Athabasca Glacier is one of the valley glaciers that drains the
Columbia Icefield. The glacier that is west of the Athabasca Glacier is the Dome Glacier.
There are a series of other markers present:
Location 6a: Sunwapta Lake, a small proglacial lake
Location 6b: Sunwapta River, downstream of the Athabasca and Dome Glaciers
Location 6c: Lateral moraine on the east side of the Athabasca Glacier
Location 6d: Debris covered ice on the western edge of the Athabasca Glacier
The Athabasca Glacier has a negative mass balance and has been retreating in recent decades. We can see new
end and lateral moraines that have been developed as the glacier has retreated from a more extensive position at
the end of the 19th century. As the glacier has retreated a series of depositional glacial landforms such as
moraines and outwash plains (valley trains) have been developed. There are a variety of glacial sediments
(deposits) that comprise these features.
Locations 6a, 6b, 6c and 6d show four separate depositional environments. The first is Sunwapta Lake, the
second is the channel and floodplain of the Sunwapta River which is being supplied by meltwaters from the
Athabasca and Dome Glaciers, the third is a lateral moraine east of the Athabasca Glacier, and the final location
is on a section of the Athabasca Glacier where the ice is covered in debris. As the ice beneath the debris melts
out those sediments are being deposited.
26.
For each of these four environments (locations) identify and describe the types of sediments that have
been deposited. You answer should address each of the four locations in turn. You should clearly identify the
types of materials using the appropriate terminology and fully describe their attributes. Your answer should
specifically address the physical properties of the materials such as texture, sorting, rounding, stratification,
permeability and other relevant information. Your answer should be written in sentence form, point form
responses will not be graded.
(12 marks)
Locations 7a, 7b, 7c and 7d.
There are four locations that show stream channels. Locations 7a and 7b are examples of braided streams,
Locations 7c and 7d are examples of meandering streams. There are a series of variables that influence
channel pattern. There are also a series of variables that help us to describe and understand the characteristics
of stream channels. Your answers to the questions below should be written in sentence form, point form
responses will not be graded.
27.
a) For Meandering Streams, describe the typically morphology and characteristics of these channels. In
this description you should comment on the channel geometry, specifically comment on the: (i) sinuosity of the
channel(s), (ii) channel shape (typical width to depth ratios), (iii) number of threads, (iv) types of materials that
are found in the bed and banks, and (v) depositional and erosional features that are typically found in the
channels.
(4 marks)
b)
For Braided Streams, describe the typically morphology and characteristics of these channels. In this
description you should comment on the channel geometry, specifically comment on the: (i) sinuosity of the
channel(s), (ii) channel shape (typical width to depth ratios), (iii) number of threads, (iv) types of materials that
are found in the bed and banks, and (v) depositional and erosional features that are typically found in the
channels.
(4 marks)
c)
Identify the variables that control or strongly influence channel pattern. Describe how those variables
influence channel pattern by comparing and contrasting braided and meandering streams.
(4 marks)
Section Four ? Soil Order Description (/8)
In the exam folder there are three review papers on the characteristics of soil orders in Canada.
The three soil orders selected are Chernozemic, Luvisolic and Podzolic. Select ONE of these Soil Orders
(Chernozemic, Luvisolic or Podzolic). Using the appropriate review paper, as well as the Canadian System of
Soil Classification, and other materials reviewed in class complete the following. Answer parts a, b, and c all
below c).
23.
For the Soil Order selected:
(a) identify and describe the characteristics of these soils and dominant soil forming process(es) that
generate these soils,
(b) describe their distribution across Canada, and
(c) using the Canadian System of Soil Classification identify the Great Groups of the soil
order and the differences between the Great Groups.
(8 marks)
Podzolic soils of Canada: Genesis, distribution,
and classification
Paul Sanborn1, Luc Lamontagne2, and William Hendershot3
Can. J. Soil. Sci. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by WILFRID LAURIER UNIV on 04/06/18
For personal use only.
1
Ecosystem Science and Management Program, University of Northern British Columbia 3333 University Way,
Prince George, British Columbia, Canada V2L 2X6 (e-mail: sanborn@unbc.ca); 2Agriculture et Agroalimentaire
Canada, 979 avenue de Bourgogne, Que?bec, Que?bec, Canada G1W 2L4 (e-mail: luc.lamontagne@agr.gc.ca); and
3
Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Que?bec, Canada H9X 3V9
(e-mail: william.hendershot@mcgill.ca). Received 17 February 2010, accepted 25 January 2011.
Sanborn, P., Lamontagne, L. and Hendershot, W. 2011. Podzolic soils of Canada: Genesis, distribution, and classification.
Can. J. Soil Sci. 91: 843 880. Podzolic soils occupy 14.3% of the Canadian landmass, and occur in two widely separated
areas, eastern Canada (northern Ontario, Quebec, Maritimes) and British Columbia, usually under coniferous forest and
on non-calcareous parent materials. Broad climatic control of Podzol distribution and properties is evident at the national
scale, with higher organic matter concentrations (Ferro-Humic Podzols) in wetter climates, in contrast to Humo-Ferric
Podzols predominating in drier boreal forest regions. Humic Podzols are least abundant and are restricted to the wettest
landscape positions. International and Canadian research suggests that a more diverse range of processes is involved in
podzolization than was envisioned in the 1960s, and proposed mechanisms must account for observed patterns of organic
matter distribu?

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