PHIL 101 SBU Plato Philosophy Knowing Real and Good Discussion: Philosophy Answers 2021

PHIL 101 SBU Plato Philosophy Knowing Real and Good Discussion: Philosophy Answers 2021

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PHIL 101 SBU Plato Philosophy Knowing Real and Good Discussion

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T H E G R E AT C O N V E R S AT I O N
T HE GR EAT
CON V ERSATION
A Historical Introduction to Philosophy
EIGHTH EDIT ION
NOR M A N M ELCHERT
Professor Emeritus, Lehigh University
DAV ID R . MOR ROW
Visiting Fellow, George Mason University
New York??Oxford
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
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and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Melchert, Norman, author. | Morrow, David R., author.
Title: The great conversation : a historical introduction to philosophy /
Norman Melchert, Professor Emeritus, Lehigh University; David R. Morrow,
Visiting Fellow, George Mason University.
Description: Eighth edition. | New York : Oxford University Press, 2018.
| Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2018011655 | ISBN 9780190670610 (hardcover)
Subjects: LCSH: Philosophy?Textbooks.
Classification: LCC BD21 .M43 2018 | DDC 190?dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018011655
Printing number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Printed by LSC Communications Inc.
United States of America
CON T E N T S
the soul 31
how to live 33
A Word to Instructors xiii
A Word to Students xv
Acknowledgments xxi
3. APPEARANCE AND REALITY IN
ANCIENT INDIA 35
1. BEFORE PHILOSOPHY: MYTH
IN HESIOD AND HOMER 1
The Vedas and the Upani?ads 35
The Buddha 38
the four noble truths and the
noble eightfold path 39
right view 41
Non-Self and N?gasena 43
The Brahmanical Schools 45
vai?e?ika 46
ny?ya 48
The Great Conversation in India 53
Hesiod: War Among the Gods 2
Homer: Heroes, Gods, and Excellence 4
2. PHILOSOPHY BEFORE
SOCRATES 9
Thales: The One as Water 10
Anaximander: The One as the Boundless 11
Xenophanes: The Gods as Fictions 13
Sketch: Pythagoras 15
Heraclitus: Oneness in the Logos 17
Parmenides: Only the One 22
Zeno: The Paradoxes of Common Sense 27
Atomism: The One and the Many Reconciled 28
the key: an ambiguity 29
the world 30
4. THE SOPHISTS: RHETORIC
AND RELATIVISM IN ATHENS 55
Democracy 55
The Persian Wars 56
The Sophists 58
v
vi??
Contents
rhetoric 60
relativism 62
63
Athens and Sparta at War 67
Aristophanes and Reaction 69
physis and nomos
5. REASON AND RELATIVISM IN
CHINA 75
A Brief History of Ancient China 75
Mozi 77
The School of Names 80
The Later Mohists 82
Zhuangzi 83
Sketch: Laozi 88
6. SOCRATES: TO KNOW
ONESELF 91
Character 92
Is Socrates a Sophist? 95
What Socrates ?Knows? 97
we ought to search for truth 98
human excellence is knowledge 99
all wrongdoing is due to ignorance 100
the most important thing of all is to
care for your soul 100
7. THE TRIAL AND DEATH OF
SOCRATES 102
Euthyphro 103
translator?s introduction
the dialogue 103
commentary and questions
Apology 116
translator?s introduction
the dialogue 117
commentary and questions
Crito 135
translator?s introduction
103
111
116
129
135
the dialogue 135
commentary and questions 142
Phaedo (Death Scene) 144
translator?s introduction 144
the dialogue (selection) 145
commentary and questions 147
8. PLATO: KNOWING THE REAL
AND THE GOOD 148
Knowledge and Opinion 149
making the distinction 149
we do know certain truths 151
the objects of knowledge 152
the reality of the forms 154
The World and the Forms 155
how forms are related to the
world 155
lower and higher forms 158
the form of the good 160
The Love of Wisdom 162
what wisdom is 162
love and wisdom 165
The Soul 168
the immortality of the soul 169
the structure of the soul 170
Morality 171
The State 177
Problems with the Forms 179
9. ARISTOTLE: THE REALITY OF
THE WORLD 182
Aristotle and Plato 182
Logic and Knowledge 184
terms and statements 185
truth 187
reasons why: the syllogism 188
knowing first principles 190
Contents
The World 192
nature 193
the four ?becauses? 194
is there purpose in nature? 195
teleology 196
First Philosophy 197
not plato?s forms 198
what of mathematics? 199
substance and form 199
pure actualities 201
god 201
The Soul 203
levels of soul 204
soul and body 205
nous 206
The Good Life 208
happiness 208
virtue or excellence (aret?) 212
the role of reason 213
responsibility 216
the highest good 217
10. CONFUCIUS, MENCIUS, AND
XUNZI: VIRTUE IN ANCIENT
CHINA 220
Confucius 220
the way of confucius 221
ritual propriety 223
good government 224
Mencius 226
differentiated love 226
human nature is good 228
Xunzi 230
The Confucians? Legacy 233
11. EPICUREANS, STOICS, AND
SKEPTICS: HAPPINESS FOR THE
MANY 235
The Epicureans 236
??vii
The Stoics 241
Profile: Marcus Aurelius 244
The Skeptics 246
12. JEWS AND CHRISTIANS:
SIN, SALVATION, AND LOVE 253
Background 253
Jesus 255
The Meaning of Jesus 259
13. AUGUSTINE: GOD AND
THE SOUL 261
Wisdom, Happiness, and God 267
God and the World 270
the great chain of being 270
Sketch: Hypatia of Alexandria 273
evil 273
time 274
Human Nature and Its Corruption 277
Human Nature and Its Restoration 282
Augustine on Relativism 284
The Two Cities 285
Augustine and the Philosophers 287
reason and authority 288
intellect and will 288
epicureans and stoics 289
14. PHILOSOPHY IN THE
ISLAMIC WORLD: THE GREAT
CONVERSATION SPREADS
OUT 292
A Sea Change in the Mediterranean Basin 292
Al-Kind?, the ?Philosopher of the Arabs? 294
Al-F?r?bi, the ?Second Master? 297
religion as subordinate to
philosophy 297
emanation and the active intellect 298
viii??
Contents
Sketch: The Celestial Spheres 299
certitude, absolute certitude, and
opinion 299
Avicenna, the ?Preeminent Master? 300
existence and essence 301
the necessary existent, god 302
the soul and its faculties 304
Al-Ghaz?l? 306
Sketch: Maimonides (Moses ben Maimon) 309
The Great Conversation in the Islamic World 309
15. ANSELM AND AQUINAS:
EXISTENCE AND ESSENCE IN
GOD AND THE WORLD 311
Anselm: On That, Than Which No Greater Can
Be Conceived 311
The Transfer of Learning 315
Thomas Aquinas: Rethinking Aristotle 316
Sketch: Averro?s, the Commentator 317
philosophy and theology 318
from creation to god 319
the nature of god 324
humans: their souls 326
humans: their knowledge 328
humans: their good 330
Ockham and Skeptical Doubts?Again 335
16. FROM MEDIEVAL TO
MODERN EUROPE 340
The World God Made for Us 340
Reforming the Church?? 344
Revolutions 348
humanism 348
skeptical thoughts revived 350
copernicus to kepler to galileo:
the great triple play 353
The Counter-Reformation 358
17. REN? DESCARTES:
DOUBTING OUR WAY TO
CERTAINTY 360
The Method 362
Meditations on First Philosophy 364
meditation i 366
Commentary and Questions 368
meditation ii 369
Commentary and Questions 372
meditation iii 375
Commentary and Questions 381
meditation iv 384
Commentary and Questions 387
meditation v 388
Commentary and Questions 391
meditation vi 392
Commentary and Questions 398
What Has Descartes Done? 400
a new ideal for knowledge 400
a new vision of reality 401
problems 401
the preeminence of epistemology 402
18. HOBBES, LOCKE, AND
BERKELEY: MATERIALISM
AND THE BEGINNINGS OF
EMPIRICISM 404
Thomas Hobbes: Catching Persons in the Net of
the New Science 404
method 405
minds and motives 406
Sketch: Margaret Cavendish 407
Sketch: Francis Bacon 412
the natural foundation of
moral rules 413
John Locke: Looking to Experience 416
origin of ideas 417
Contents
idea of the soul 419
idea of personal identity 419
language and essence 420
the extent of knowledge 422
of representative government 424
of toleration 426
George Berkeley: Ideas into Things 427
abstract ideas 428
ideas and things 430
god 434
19. DAVID HUME: UNMASKING
THE PRETENSIONS OF
REASON 438
How Newton Did It 439
Profile: ?milie du Ch?telet 440
To Be the Newton of Human Nature 441
The Theory of Ideas 443
The Association of Ideas 444
Causation: The Very Idea 445
The Disappearing Self 451
Rescuing Human Freedom 453
Is It Reasonable to Believe in God? 455
Understanding Morality 458
reason is not a motivator 458
the origins of moral judgment 460
Is Hume a Skeptic? 462
20. IMMANUEL KANT:
REHABILITATING REASON
(WITHIN STRICT LIMITS) 465
Critique 467
Judgments 468
Geometry, Mathematics, Space, and Time 470
Common Sense, Science, and the A Priori
Categories 473
Phenomena and Noumena 476
??ix
Sketch: Baruch Spinoza 477
Sketch: Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz 478
Reasoning and the Ideas of Metaphysics:
God, World, and Soul 479
the soul 481
the world and the free will 482
god 483
the ontological argument 484
Reason and Morality 485
the good will 486
the moral law 488
Sketch: Jean-Jacques Rousseau 490
autonomy 491
freedom 492
21. GEORG WILHELM
FRIEDRICH HEGEL: TAKING
HISTORY SERIOUSLY 496
Historical and Intellectual Context 497
the french revolution 497
the romantics 498
Epistemology Internalized 498
Sketch: Arthur Schopenhauer 501
Self and Others 504
Stoic and Skeptical Consciousness 507
Hegel?s Analysis of Christianity 508
Reason and Reality: The Theory of Idealism 509
Spirit Made Objective: The Social Character
of Ethics 511
History and Freedom 516
22. KIERKEGAARD AND MARX:
TWO WAYS TO ?CORRECT?
HEGEL 521
Kierkegaard: On Individual Existence 521
the aesthetic 522
the ethical 525
x??
Contents
the religious 528
the individual 535
Marx: Beyond Alienation and Exploitation 537
alienation, exploitation, and private
property 539
communism 542
23. MORAL AND POLITICAL
REFORMERS: THE HAPPINESS OF
ALL, INCLUDING WOMEN 545
The Classic Utilitarians 545
Profile: Peter Singer 553
The Rights of Women 555
24. FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE: THE
VALUE OF EXISTENCE 562
Pessimism and Tragedy 563
Goodbye Real World 567
The Death of God 570
Revaluation of Values 573
master morality/slave morality 574
Profile: Iris Murdoch 575
our morality 578
The Overman 581
Af?rming Eternal Recurrence 589
25. THE PRAGMATISTS:
THOUGHT AND ACTION 593
Charles Sanders Peirce 593
fixing belief 594
belief and doubt 596
truth and reality 597
meaning 601
signs 604
John Dewey 606
the impact of darwin 606
naturalized epistemology 608
Sketch: William James 609
nature and natural science 610
value naturalized 612
26. LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN:
LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS AND
ORDINARY LANGUAGE 617
Language and Its Logic 617
Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus 619
Sketch: Bertrand Russell 620
picturing 622
thought and language 624
logical truth 626
saying and showing 627
setting the limit to thought 628
value and the self 629
good and evil, happiness and
unhappiness 631
the unsayable 633
Profile: The Logical Positivists 634
Philosophical Investigations 636
philosophical illusion 637
language-games 639
naming and meaning 640
family resemblances 641
The Continuity of Wittgenstein?s
Thought 643
Our Groundless Certainty 645
Profile: Zen 646
27. MARTIN HEIDEGGER:
THE MEANING OF BEING 651
What Is the Question? 652
The Clue 653
Phenomenology 655
Being-in-the-World 657
The ?Who? of Dasein 662
Contents
Modes of Disclosure 664
attunement 665
understanding 667
discourse 669
Falling-Away 670
idle talk 671
curiosity 671
ambiguity 672
Care 672
Death 673
Conscience, Guilt, and Resoluteness 674
Temporality as the Meaning of Care 677
28. SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR:
EXISTENTIALIST, FEMINIST 680
Ambiguity 680
Profile: Jean-Paul Sartre 684
Ethics 686
Woman 691
29. POSTMODERNISM: DERRIDA,
FOUCAULT, AND RORTY 698
Deconstruction: Jacques Derrida 699
writing, iterability, diff?rance 701
deconstructing a text 705
Knowledge and Power: Michel Foucault 706
archaeology of knowledge 708
genealogy 709
??xi
Liberal Irony: Richard Rorty 712
contingency, truth, and
antiessentialism 713
liberalism and the hope of
solidarity 716
relativism 719
30. PHYSICAL REALISM AND
THE MIND: QUINE, DENNETT,
SEARLE, NAGEL, JACKSON, AND
CHALMERS 722
Science, Common Sense, and Metaphysics:
Willard van Orman Quine 723
holism 724
ontological commitment 728
natural knowing 729
The Matter of Minds 733
intentionality 734
intentional systems: daniel dennett 735
the chinese room: john searle 738
consciousness: nagel, jackson,
chalmers 739
Afterword??????????????. A-1
Appendix:Writing a Philosophy Paper??. App-1
Glossary.. ??????????????. G-1
Credits???????????????. C-1
Index????????????????. I-1
A W O R D T O IN S TRU CTO RS
P
New to This Edition
hilosophy is both argument and innovation.
We try in this introductory text to provide
students with excellent examples of both in
the ongoing story of a basic part of our intellectual
life. We aim to teach students how to think by apprenticing them to a succession of the best thinkers
humanity has produced, mainly but not exclusively in the Western tradition, thereby drawing
them into this ongoing conversation. So we see
how Aristotle builds on and criticizes his teacher,
Plato, how Augustine creatively melds traditions
stemming from Athens and Jerusalem, how Kant
tries to solve ?Hume?s problem,? and why Wittgenstein thought most previous philosophy was
meaningless.
This eighth edition continues to represent the
major philosophers through extensive quotations
set in a fairly rich cultural and historical context.
The large number of cross-references and footnotes
continue to make the conversation metaphor more
than mere fancy. And the four complete works?
Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, and ?
Meditations?are
retained.
A number of new features will be found in this
edition. Throughout, the text has been tightened up and minor sections were deleted to make
room for new material. In addition, several larger
changes have been made. These changes include the
following:
?
?
?
Three new chapters introduce students to the
beginnings of philosophical conversations in
India and China, with one chapter on ancient
Indian philosophy and two chapters on ancient
Chinese philosophy.
A new chapter is devoted entirely to philosophy
in the Islamic world.
A section on Hildegaard of Bingen in a chapter
on medieval thought and new sketches of Hypatia and Margaret Cavendish, and a profile of
?milie du Ch?telet.
Again, for this edition, a student web page is available at www.oup.com/us/melchert. Here students
will find essential points, vocabulary flashcards,
sample multiple-choice questions, and further web
xiii
xiv??
A Word to Instructors
resources for each chapter. The latter consist mainly,
though not exclusively, of original philosophical
texts. This means that if you want to assign students
to read, say, Hume?s Enquiry or parts of Plato?s Republic, these texts are easy for them to find. An Instructor?s Manual is available at the same site.
The text is again available both as a single hardback edition and as two paperback volumes, so it
can be used economically in either a whole-year or
a single-semester course. Although the entire book
contains too much material for a single semester, it
provides a rich menu of choices for instructors who
do not wish to restrict themselves to the earlier or
later periods.
In this era, when even the educated have such
a thin sense of history, teaching philosophy in this
conversational, cumulative, back- and forwardlooking way can be a service not just to philosophical understanding, but also to the culture as
a whole.
A W O R D T O S TU DE N TS
W
e all have opinions?we can?t help
it. Having opinions is as natural to us
as breathing. Opinions, moreover,
are a dime a dozen. They?re ?oating all around
us and they?re so different from each other. One
person believes this, another that. You believe
in God, your buddy doesn?t. John thinks there?s
nothing wrong with keeping a found wallet, you
are horri?ed. Some of us say, ?Everybody?s got
their own values?; others are sure that some things
are just plain wrong?wrong for everybody. Some
delay grati?cation for the sake of long-term goals;
others indulge in whatever pleasures happen to
be at hand. What kind of world do we live in?
Jane studies science to ?nd out, Jack turns to the
occult. Is death the end for us??Some say yes,
some say no.
What?s a person to do?
happen to know or where you were brought
up. You want to believe for good reasons. That?s
the right question, isn?t it? Which of these many
?opinions has the best reasons behind it? You want
to live your life as wisely as possible.
Fortunately, we have a long tradition of really
smart people who have been thinking about
issues such as these, and we can go to them for
help. They?re called ?philosophers??lovers of
wisdom?and they have been trying to straighten
out all these issues. They are in the business of
asking which opinions or views or beliefs there is
good reason to accept.
Unfortunately, these philosophers don?t all
agree either. So you might ask, If these really
smart philosophers can?t agree on what wisdom
says, why should I pay them any attention? The
answer is?because it?s the best shot you?ve got.
If you seriously want to improve your opinions,
there?s nothing better you can do than engage in a
?conversation? with the best minds our history has
produced.
One of the authors of this book had a teacher?
a short, white-haired, elderly gentleman with a
Study Philosophy!
You don?t want simply to be at the mercy of accident in your opinions?for your views to be
decided by irrelevant matters such as whom you
xv
xvi??
A Word to Students
thick German accent?who used to say, ?Whether
you will philosophize or won?t philosophize, you
must philosophize.? By this, he meant that we can?t
help making decisions about these crucial matters.
We make them either well or badly, conscious
of what we are doing or just stumbling along. As
Kierkegaard would say, we express such decisions
in the way we live, whether or not we have ever
given them a moment?s thought. In a sense, then,
you are already a philosopher, already engaged in
the business philosophers have committed themselves to. So you shouldn?t have any problem in
making a connection with what they write.
Does it help to think about such matters? You
might as well ask whether it helps to think about
the recipe before you start to cook. Socrates says
that ?the unexamined life is not worth living.?
And that?s what philosophy is: an examination of
?opinions?and also of our lives, shaped by these
opinions. In thinking philosophically, we try to
sort our opinions into two baskets: the good-views
basket and the trash.
We want to think about these matters as clearly
and rationally as we can. Thinking is a kind of craft.
Like any other craft, we can do it well or poorly,
with shoddy workmanship or with care, and we
improve with practice. It is common for people
who want to learn a craft?cabinetmaking, for
example?to apprentice themselves for a time
?
to a master, doing what the master does until the
time comes when they are skillful enough to set up
shop on their own. You can think of reading this
book as a k?

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