What is disinformation and how prevalent is it?

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write 3000 words essay including references from the list below.
1) – Journalists and Political Sources: 

Gaber, I. (2009). The slow death of the Westminster Lobby: Collateral damage from the MPs’ expenses scandal. British Politics, 4(4), 478-497.

Jackson, D., & Moloney, K. (2016). Inside Churnalism: PR, journalism and power relationships in flux. Journalism Studies, 17(6), 763-780.

 2) Journalism versus PR: The rise of spin: Oborne, P. (2019). ‘British journalists have become part of Johnson’s fake news machine’. Open Democracy

Hou, J. Z. (2019). Beyond ‘love-hate’stereotype: Reflecting on the new dimension (s) of relationship between public relations and journalism in the ‘post-truth’era. 2019 International Association of Media and Communication Research (IAMCR) Conference

3) Social media and political journalism / Wikleaks: a case study : 

Allcott, H., & Gentzkow, M. (2017). Social media and fake news in the 2016 election (No. w23089). National Bureau of Economic Research.

https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/10/31/trolls-for-trump

Watch: We Steal Secrets: The Story of WikiLeaks

https://www.newyorker.com/news/our-columnists/the-indictment-of-julian-assange-is-a-threat-to-journalism

4) Covering Elections: Cushion, S., Kilby, A., Thomas, R., Morani, M., & Sambrook, R. (2016). Newspapers, impartiality and television news: Intermedia agenda-setting during the 2015 UK general election campaign. Journalism Studies, 1-20.

Loughborough University (2019). General Election 2019 Reports 1-5

Cusion, S. and Lewis, S. (2016). Broadcasters were biased during the EU referendum campaign – but not in the way you think. New Statesman.

5) Gatekeeping and news selection : Galtung, J., & Ruge, M. H. (1965). The structure of foreign news: The presentation of the Congo, Cuba and Cyprus crises in four Norwegian newspapers. Journal of peace research, 2(1), 64-90.

Bruns, A. (2011). Gatekeeping, gatewatching, real-time feedback: new challenges for journalism. Brazilian Journalism Research, 7(2), 117-136.

6) Influence and effects: Bennett, W. L., & Iyengar, S. (2008). A new era of minimal effects? The changing foundations of political communication. Journal of Communication, 58(4), 707-731.

Holbert, R. L., Garrett, R. K., & Gleason, L. S. (2010). A new era of minimal effects? A response to Bennett and Iyengar. Journal of Communication, 60(1), 15-34.

7) Media and Political Elites: 

Freedman, D. (2014). Metrics, models and the meaning of media ownership. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 20(2), 170-185.

Leveson, B. (2012). An Inquiry into the Culture, Practices and Ethics of the Press: Executive summary. Pp. 24-31

8) The Disinformation Order : 

Berkowitz, D., & Schwartz, D. A. (2016). Miley, CNN and The Onion: When fake news becomes realer than real. Journalism Practice, 10(1), 1-17.

Bennett, W. L., & Livingston, S. (2018). The disinformation order: Disruptive communication and the decline of democratic institutions. European journal of communication, 33(2), 122-139.

9) 

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