Hudson County Community College School Organizational Structure Paper: Sociology Answers 2021

Hudson County Community College School Organizational Structure Paper: Sociology Answers 2021

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Hudson County Community College School Organizational Structure Paper

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Lecture 4
UNIT 4: Groups, Organizations, Deviance and Control
By Nabil Marshood
Humans are born in groups (families) and most in modern society are born in organizations (Hospitals).
In addition, they spend the rest of their lives in groups and organizations. They are raised by groups and
organizations. They work with groups in organizations, and do the same for their children. Humans in
effect are socialized to belong and function in groups and organizations that exist in their society. Some
of these groups are chosen by the individual and many are not. Consider the following and answer three
questions about each of group listed below. The first question is how important groups are to you? The
second is did you choose it? And the third question is: how to classify each unit? (Group, organization, or
something else?)
Social class
Work place
Let?s break this down even further. As to the family, you are a son or daughter to your parents, you are a
brother or sister to your siblings, you are a cousin or a niece, a grandchild, an uncle or an aunt and more.
As to your race or ethnicity, you could be black or white or Asian. You could be white Hispanic or black
Hispanic and more. The same could apply to religion and the rest of the categories listed here.
Examine the social meaning and significance of each position. Take for example, your social class. I am
sure you did not choose your parent?s social class but your position in the class structure makes a
significant impact on your life chances and opportunities. Couple that class position with your race and
gender and you begin to see the power of these groups and categories.
The term group is defined as a number of people who have an ongoing interactions among themselves.
To further understand this term, it is important to look at related concepts. So, what is the difference
between group, organization, category and aggregate?
The definition of a group is very broad and may come in different types. An organization is a specific
type of a group that has a specific goal (a corporation for the purpose of profit making). A category on
the other hand is a collection of large number of people who share on characteristic such as religion or
Copyright ? 2019 by Nabil Marshood
race. As a black person for example, you belong to this large category of black people. You may not
know each individual in that category but you feel a connection and a strong sense of belonging to it. An
aggregate is a different unit. It refers to a collection of people who happen to be together at the same
time and place by chance. Passengers on the train, for example. Or a football fans watching the game at
the stadium. Think of your own examples.
What is the point of all this? You may ask. Sociologists and social scientists in general refer to the
importance of groups and organizations for they impact our identities in so many ways.
First, groups and organizations play a role in identity formation. Since you belong to a number of groups,
your identity is multifaceted and is a function of all your connections to these groups.
Second, because groups are important, they place the individual in a specific position (status) and define
roles and expectations associated with each status. Read about status and roles in textbook.
Third, groups, organizations, and categories form the foundation for the size and power of the social
networks, which may constitute the type of social capital the people have. Consider your own social
capital in society today.
Forth, each group has its own rules, norms and guidelines for members to follow. The group has the
resources to reward those who follow and punish those who don?t. This brings us to the area of
deviance, crime and control. Humans live in a constant dilemma. While the individual desires freedom,
groups and societies demand control. Because humans are social creatures and are dependent on
others for their survival and success, perhaps the notion of ultimate freedom is an illusion. What do you
think? In other words, society, groups and organizations demand conformity and impose sanctions on
those who deviate from their norms and rules. Consequently, people conform and follow the norms and
rules of society, at times blindly. Socialization is powerful enough to construct a reality of obedience and
Sociologists suggest that there is a different types of control and distinguish between deviance and
crime. Their research has produced a number of theories about deviance and crime proposing that
crime and deviance are socially constructed. Humans are not born criminals. Take for example the case
of a soldier who is encouraged and trained to kill people. The more destructive they are, the more
rewards they may receive. But if that same person commits the same act of killing at home or in his own
country, he or she may be treated as a criminal or a terrorist. You are most likely aware of how race and
religion play a role in those labels. History has shown that when a white man commits an act of mass
shooting, he is treated as a person with mental problem. If a black, a Hispanic or a Muslim person does
the same, he is referred to as a thug or a terrorist. In other words, the labels are socially constructed to
serve a political agenda.
In this context, one must ask a simple question: What is the difference between crime and terrorism?
While crime refers to an aggressive/violent behavior that violates the law, terrorism refers to
aggressive/violent behavior carried out for a political purpose. In this case, individuals, groups or
countries could carry out terrorist acts. Is there a country (not individuals or groups) that you would
consider terrorist? Moreover, keep in mind that both terrorism and crime and not recent events.
Consider for example, the attacks that were carried out by the KKK against black families including
lynching and their burning homes. Do you consider them acts of crime or terrorism?
Copyright ? 2019 by Nabil Marshood
In addition to the labeling theory, sociologists have proposed a number of other theories that address
the reasons for crime. In those theories (see textbook) they try to explain the social and structural
reasons for crime. The extensive work done by sociologists on matters of crime and deviance had set the
stage for building a new academic field of study also known as criminology. For students majoring in
criminology, keep in mind the origin of your discipline.
Crime and deviance are a behavior like any other behavior. Some behaviors conform to the rules of
society and the group, and some don?t. Thus, to understand the underlying causes of crime or any
behavior, one must consider the following:
1. A behavior has a history
2. A behavior has a context
3. A behavior has a purpose
In other words, things don?t just happen overnight, and there is no such thing as good and evil. There is
a social reality and a social structure that set the grounds for any given behavior. That is to say, crime,
deviance and terrorism are all symptoms of social troubles.
The work of Emile Durkheim on Suicide and anomie, and the work of Karl Marx on alienation suggest
that social reality is powerful enough to cause some people to commit acts of violence and crime. The
modern idea of individualism coupled with forces of globalization, social media and solitude have caused
significant pressure on the individual. Intimate groups like family and marriage have declined leaving the
individual to fend for him/herself. Consequently, you find high suicide rates, opioid use is on the rise,
mass shootings are more frequent than ever before, and more violence and tension in society. In
addition, you find high rates of job related insecurities, immigration conflicts and global wars and
environmental problems. All leading to higher rates of alienation and consequently a higher rate of
control by the government. Some argue that we are now witnessing a paradigm shift toward
militarization of the American society.
To have a deeper comprehension of this topic, read thoroughly the required chapters. And as you
question your own social status and role, take the time to examine your own biases and ideologies as
they relate to behavior that differs from your own and avoid making any judgment. To reach a deeper
level of understanding, we need knowledge and reflection. Judgements blind us and steer us away from
knowledge and reflection.
Required Reading: Textbook ? Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5, 6
Conley, D. (2019). You May Ask Yourself (6th Ed.). New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
Recommended Reading
Peter Berger, The Meaning of Social Control
Philip Zimbardo, The Prison Experiment
Solomon Asch, Conformity Experiment
Emile Durkheim, Suicide (
Copyright ? 2019 by Nabil Marshood
Copyright ? 2019 by Nabil Marshood
Chapter 1
The Sociological Imagination:
An Introduction
Copyright ? 2019 W. W. Norton & Company
? A successful sociologist makes
the familiar strange.
? Click here to watch the paradox
What Is Sociology?
? Sociology is the study of
human society.
The Sociological Imagination
Slide 1 of 2
Sociological imagination, a term coined by C. Wright Mills, is a
tool that helps us to
? connect our personal experiences to society at large and to
greater historical forces.
? ?make the familiar strange,? or question habits or customs
that seem ?natural? to us.
The Sociological Imagination
Slide 2 of 2
?Why go to college??
College graduates earn about $960,000 more over their lifetimes
than those with only a high-school education.
? If the benefits of college are due to the learning that takes
place, why not do it on your own for free?
? If it?s really about getting a ?piece of paper? then why not
print out a fake diploma?
Asha Rangappa Interview
? Asha Rangappa, the dean of
admissions at Yale Law School,
discusses the role that class
plays in acceptance.
? Click here to watch the
Discussion Question 1
? Why are you in college?
? Did the people around you,
including friends and family,
expect you to go to college? Do
you think this is the same for
everyone? Why or why not?
What Is a Social Institution?
Slide 1 of 2
A social institution is a complex group of interdependent
positions that, together, perform a social role and reproduce
themselves over time.
? The legal system
? The labor market
? The educational system
? The military
? The family
What Is a Social Institution?
Slide 2 of 2
A college is a social institution that
? acts as gatekeeper to ?legitimate? forms of education by
deciding who can attend.
? segregates great swaths of the population by age.
? is a proprietary brand that is marketed on items like
sweatshirts and through televised sporting events.
? has an informal set of stories told within a social network of
students, faculty, administrators, alumni, and so on.
What Is Social Identity?
Social identity is the way individuals define themselves in
relation to groups of which they are a part (or in relation to
groups of which they choose not to be a part).
The History of Sociology
Slide 1 of 3
Auguste Comte?the best way to understand society is by
determining the logic or scientific laws governing human
behavior, called social physics or positivism.
Harriet Martineau?the first person to translate Comte?s written
works into English, and one of the earliest feminist social
The History of Sociology
Slide 2 of 3
Karl Marx?proposed the theory of historical materialism,
which identifies class conflict as the primary cause of social
Max Weber?his emphasis on subjectivity became a foundation
of interpretive sociology.
The History of Sociology
Slide 3 of 3
?mile Durkheim?the founder of positivist sociology;
developed the theory that the division of labor helps to
determine how social cohesion is maintained, or not
Georg Simmel?proposed a formal sociology, or a sociology of
pure numbers (for instance, how a group of two is different than
a group of three).
American Sociology
Slide 1 of 2
Early American sociology became prominent at the University of
The ?Chicago School? perspective focused on empirical research,
with the belief that people?s behaviors and personalities are
shaped by their social and physical environments.
? Robert Park
? Louis Wirth
? George Herbert Mead
? Charles Horton Cooley
American Sociology
Slide 2 of 2
W. E. B. Du Bois?the first African American to receive a PhD
from Harvard and the first sociologist to undertake ethnography
in the African American community.
Jane Addams?founded Hull House, where the ideas of the
Chicago School were put into practice and tested.
Talcott Parsons?leading theorist of functionalism in the midtwentieth century.
W. E. B. Du Bois
Modern Sociological Theories
Slide 1 of 3
? the theory that various social institutions and processes in
society exist to serve some important (or necessary)
function to keep society running
Conflict Theory
? the idea that conflict between competing interests is the
basic, animating force of social change and society in
Modern Sociological Theories
Slide 2 of 3
Feminist theory
? a catchall term for many theories with an emphasis on
women?s experiences and a belief that sociology and society
in general subordinate women
Symbolic interactionism
? a micro-level theory in which shared meanings,
orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations
behind people?s actions
Modern Sociological Theories
Slide 3 of 3
? a condition characterized by a questioning of the notion of
progress and history, the replacement of narrative within
pastiche, and multiple, perhaps even conflicting, identities
resulting from disjointed affiliations
Midrange theory
? a theory that attempts to predict how certain social
institutions tend to function
Discussion Question 2
Compare functionalism and conflict theory. How would the two
differ in their understanding of inequality?
Sociology and Its Cousins
Slide 1 of 2
Sociology focuses on making comparisons across cases to find
patterns and create hypotheses about how societies work now
or how they worked in the past.
Sociology looks at how individuals interact with one another as
well as at how groups, small and large, interact with one
Sociology and Its Cousins
Slide 2 of 2
Distinctions are important, but a lot of overlap exists between
different academic disciplines.
? History and anthropology?cultural anthropology in
particular?tend to focus more on particular circumstances.
? Psychology and biology examine things on a more micro
level than sociology does, and economics is an entirely
quantitative discipline.
? Political science focuses on one aspect of social relations?
Julia Adams Interview
? Historical comparative
sociologist Julia Adams
discusses the difference
between historians and
? Click here to watch the
Divisions within Sociology
? Microsociology understands
local interactional contexts,
focusing on face-to-face
encounters and gathering data
through participant
observations and in-depth
? Macrosociology looks at social
dynamics across whole
societies or large parts of them
and often relies on statistical
analysis to do so.
Concept Quiz
Question 1 of 5
Which of the following is an example of using one?s sociological
a) being in unfamiliar surroundings and imagining being in a
more comfortable place
b) creating different hypotheses to explain an individual?s
c) creating a story to explain unfamiliar social customs
d) being puzzled by how people in another country greet one
another and then thinking about why they might do it that
Concept Quiz
Question 2 of 5
Social identity is
a) a construct that no longer has meaning in the postmodern
b) a collection of social roles that a person might fill.
c) a way that individuals define themselves in relation to
d) determined by the social group into which a person is
Concept Quiz
Question 3 of 5
The Chicago School of American Sociology emphasized the
importance of
a) the social and moral consequences of the division of labor.
b) the environment in shaping people?s behavior and
c) heavy statistical research.
d) none of the above
Concept Quiz
Question 4 of 5
Sociology is distinct from other academic disciplines in its
attempt to
a) embrace quantitative and qualitative research.
b) ask probing questions about how societies function.
c) detect patterns in how different societies handle or
respond to similar phenomena.
d) examine human interaction on the micro level.
Concept Quiz
Question 5 of 5
Which of the following is an example of a study that might be
undertaken by a macrosociologist?
a) assessing how people choose where to sit on a public bus
b) observing customers? responses to being greeted upon
entering a store
c) conducting a statistical analysis of when professional men
and women choose to start families
d) examining how men and women react to riding in an
elevator with an infant
Discussion Question 3
Imagine a historian and a sociologist are both studying the civil
rights movement. How might their approaches differ?
Sociology on the Street
The neighborhood where you grow up exerts a significant effect
on the rest of your life. How did your house, neighbors, street,
and town influence you?
Watch the Sociology on the Street video to find out more:
This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint presentation for:
Chapter 1
The Sociological Imagination:
An Introduction
For more learning resources, please visit:
Copyright ? 2019 W. W. Norton & Company
Chapter 6
Social Control and Deviance
Copyright ? 2019 W. W. Norton & Company
? It is the deviants among us
who hold society together.
? Click here to see the paradox
What Is Social Deviance?
Social deviance is any transgression of socially established
? Minor transgressions of these norms can be described as
informal deviance.
? Formal deviance or crime involves the violation of laws.
Deviance and Social Control
Slide 1 of 6
Social cohesion refers to the way people form social bonds,
relate to each other, and get along on a day-to-day basis.
Deviance and Social Control
Slide 2 of 6
?mile Durkheim theorized that social cohesion is established
through one of two ways:
? Mechanical solidarity?based on the sameness of
society?s parts or members
? Organic solidarity?based on the
interdependence of specialized parts or
Deviance and Social Control
Slide 3 of 6
Punitive justice focuses on making the violator suffer, and thus
defines the boundaries of acceptable behavior.
Rehabilitative justice examines the specific circumstances of an
individual transgressor and attempts to find ways to rehabilitate
him or her.
Deviance and Social Control
Slide 4 of 6
? Social control is the set of
mechanisms that create
normative compliance in
? Normative compliance is the
act of abiding by society?s
norms or simply following the
rules of group life.
Deviance and Social Control
Slide 5 of 6
Informal social sanctions
? are unspoken rules and expectations about the behavior of
? help maintain a base level of order and cohesion in society
and form a foundation for formal social control.
Deviance and Social Control
Slide 6?

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