Sociology Covid 19 Question: Sociology Answers 2021

Sociology Covid 19 Question: Sociology Answers 2021

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Sociology Covid 19 Question

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Study guide for test 2
Sociology 1101 Summer 2021
Test chapters 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16
? Extended Responses. Worth total of 28 points. To earn these points, you answers should be your own
responses (not a group answer) and be detailed. You need to demonstrate that you have good
understanding of the course terms, theories, and related works. Take your time to fully explain your
ideas and back up your points with information from the discussions and textbook.
? You can write up your responses and copy/paste it to the submission field at test time.
? Multiple choice section may include specific material from the discussion board lectures and materials.
? This study guide is just that?a guide. Please note, this is not an exhaustive list of possible multiplechoice questions or definitions. Think about your studying from this model: Are you able to take the
information from basic recall to the higher levels of thinking? Multiple-choice may require you to do
more than just recall, you may have to apply (application), or put two or more ideas together to find the
commonality (synthesis).
?
? Exam will cover material from: discussion board materials, power points, videos,
and any text chapters
Extended response section: Everyone will do prompt 1 and 2.
Prompt #1 worth 16 points
Using this quote from UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres:
?COVID-19 has been likened to an X-ray, revealing fractures in the fragile skeleton of the societies we have
built,? ??It is exposing fallacies and falsehoods everywhere: The lie that free markets can deliver health care for
all, the fiction that unpaid care work is not work, the delusion that we live in a post-racist world, the myth that
we are all in the same boat. Because while we are all floating on the same sea, it?s clear that some are in
superyachts while others are clinging to the floating debris.?
Think about chapters 9, 12, 15 and 16 (Race, schools, work, healthcare) and focus on how this above quote
applies. In this extended response, you will use discussion lectures/zoom discussions, articles/videos to give
specific examples to illustrate the realities of how Covid has revealed inequities and challenges in American
society.
Rubric: An excellent full point answer would include:
?
2 terms/theories per chapter that demonstrate learned material (terms from the lecture or book are
explained and fit appropriately) (8 points)
?
Use of specific references to discussion readings, power points, videos. Answer draws from the
resources from the course text and related materials and is not based on opinion (examples selected
should back up your point, cite specifically where you are getting the material from) (8 points)
?
One paragraph per chapter (4 paragraphs)
Prompt #2 worth 12 points
In this course you have been exposed to a lot of new material (hopefully) that has challenged your viewpoint
and expanded your view of the world. Go back through the discussion boards #5, #6, #7 and pick three topics
(from any of the three discussions) that either:
?
?
?
?
challenged your viewpoint
made you research more about the topic on your own
led to a changed position/perspective
and/or caused you to have a discussion about it with another person outside of class.
For each topic:
A. Briefly discuss each of the three topics and note what you learned specifically from the material
presented (refer to and cite the videos/lecture/articles/activities). (6 points)
B. How was your viewpoint challenged or changed by each topic (discuss your own perspective on the
topic before this course)? How did others respond when you discussed this topic with them? (6 points)
Here are some questions to focus your attention for the multiple choice. However, this is not an exhaustive list
of the areas that may be tested in multiple choice, fill-in, and/or true-false form.
Chapter 9
? What makes a group a minority? Does this term have both qualitative and quantitative dimensions?
Know theoretical approaches to the concepts of ethnicity, racism, and minority status.
? Why does racial residential segregation exist and persist in many U.S. cities? What are the consequences
of racial residential segregation?
? How is the ethnic and racial composition of the U.S. changing? Know some of the major racial and ethnic
groups in the US.
? Do you know what restrictive covenants mean?
? Assimilation, pluralism, accommodation?
? What are the finding regarding mixed contacts on social relationships?
? Can you describe and identify prejudice, discrimination, institutional and aggregate discrimination?
? What is social epidemiology?
? What do you know about stigma and stigmatized groups?
? What are the major issues of genocide?
Chapter 10
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Can you define and give an example of second shift, glass elevator and glass ceiling?
Do you know some of the issues in occupational segregation by gender?
What is human capital?
Can you differentiate between the perspectives of feminism, liberal feminism and socialist feminism and
radical feminism, and multicultural feminism?
What are some examples of indirect labour costs?
What are some examples of stereotyped threat based on gender?
What is matrix of domination?
Chapter 11
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Know the different constellations of family style (nuclear, polyandry, polygamy, serial monogamy?)
What is the picture of divorce today? Outcomes on families and children?
What is endogamous, exogenous relationships, homogamy?
What are anti-miscegenation laws?
What are some of the patterns of cohabitation and common law marriages?
Know data on stay-at-home parenting (mothers and fathers).
What are some of the issues of childcare?
Know some of the major features of family style by race/ethnicity.
Chapter 12
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What is meant by formal, mass and public education?
What are the three major events that shifted education?
What is Plessy vs. Ferguson? Brown Vs. Board of Education?
What is an example of defacto segregation?
What is a credential society?
Know some of the disparities that exist in education?
?
Know the work of Annette Laureau.
Chapter 15
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Do you know the terms work, economy, goods and services?
What is meant by Fordism, Taylorism, Marxism, communism, socialism and capitalism?
Think of examples of mass production, automation.
Know what kinds of work would be in the private vs. Public sector.
What are discouraged workers, unemployed, underemployed, not in the labour force?
What did Marx mean by ?reserve of army labour? proletariat, and the bourgeoisie?
What is means of production and means of consumption?
Know examples of emotional labour and informal economy.
Chapter 16
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Know the difference between Medicare, ACA, Medicaid.
What are the trends in health (obesity, drug abuse/use, smoking, HIV-AIDS,)?
Medical abuses: What was the Tuskegee experiments, Guatemala experimentation, lack of consent for
use of Henrietta Lacks cells?
Effects of racism and classism on health outcomes?
Know fundamental and proximate factors of health (social determinants).
What is medical sociology?
Know Parsons and Goffman?s view of the sick role
Know the definition of health, mortality, morbidity and preventative medicine.
Discuss the role that race, gender, and/or class has on violence and public health.
Chapter 16
Health and Medicine
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
2
Learning Objectives
? Explain cultural definitions of health and illness.
? Describe key issues in health care in the United
States.
? Define public health and identify important public
health problems in the United States. Analyze public
health issues through the lens of sociological theory.
? Recognize HIV/AIDS as a sociological concern.
? Identify sociological aspects of global health issues.
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
3
Cultural Definitions of Health and
Illness
? The sick role
? The social construction of illness
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
4
Health Care and Public Health in the
United States (1 of 6)
? Health care: All activities intended to sustain,
promote, and enhance health
?
?
?
?
?
Provision of medical services
Policies to minimize violence and accidents
Clean, nontoxic environment
Ecological protection
Availability of clean water, fresh air, and sanitary
living conditions
? Provision of health care differs greatly by
society
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
5
Health Care and Public Health in the
United States (2 of 6)
Source: Data from Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). GBD
Compare. Seattle, WA: IHME, University of Washington, 2018.
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
6
Health Care and Public Health in the
United States (3 of 6)
? Social inequalities in health and medicine
? Poverty affects health, food security, housing
stability, and maltreatment
?
?
?
?
Live with levels of air pollution
Higher exposure to violence
Work in physical or hazardous occupations
Less access to healthy foods due to affordability or
availability
? Less access to places for play and exercise
? Less likely to see physician for symptoms of illness
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
7
Health Care and Public Health in the
United States (4 of 6)
Source: National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2017. Life
expectancy at birth, by race and Hispanic origin, and sex: United States, 1940,
1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000?2015. Hyattsville, MD. 2018.
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
8
Health Care and Public Health in the
United States (5 of 6)
? Access to Health Care
? 2010: More than 16% lacked health insurance
? Forty-nine million uninsured under age of 65
? Nearly 50 million total
? Shift to service sector means fewer jobs that offer
health care coverage
? Government-funded programs help:
? Medicare: About 41.5 million
? Medicaid: About 54.1 million
? Many earn too much to qualify, but too little to afford selfcoverage
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
9
Health Care and Public Health in the
United States (6 of 6)
? Can Technology Expand Health Care Access?
? Technological innovations bring health care into
homes.
? Innovations such as Doctor on Demand, American
Well, and AskMD offer a range of services, from the
opportunity to ask questions by text and receive a
free medical response to an online appointment that
requires payment for a consultation.
? Potential pitfalls include lack of application to acute or
urgent needs and access issues for those without
technology.
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
10
Sociology and Issues of Public
Health in the United States
? Public health: Science and practice of
health protection and maintenance at a
community level
? Control hazards and habits that harm health
and well-being of the population
? Smoking
? Obesity
? Teen pregnancy and birth
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
11
Sociology of HIV/AIDS
?
?
?
?
Gender, sexuality, and HIV/AIDS
Poverty and HIV/AIDS
Violence and HIV/AIDS
Estimated more than 37 million people
around globe living with HIV/AIDS
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
12
Global Issues in Health and
Medicine
? Spread of disease knows no borders
? Examples: Bubonic plague, Americas indigenous
populations, deliberate infection of Guatemalan
patients
? Immunization and vaccination programs
? Greedy pharmaceutical companies prevent
widespread availability of treatment
? Chronic disease often ignored in developing
countries?make up 80% of global deaths; just 1%
of donor assistance targeted chronic disease
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
13
Why Should Sociologists Study
Health?
? No one is isolated from diseases spawned in distant places or
their consequences; acute illnesses of poverty can be found
alongside chronic maladies of affluence.
? Sociology offers tools to examine sociological antecedents of
public health problems that can
? recognize social roots of disease and illness;
? analyze how medical issues like HIV/AIDS intersect with gender
inequality, stereotypes, violence, and poverty;
? examine global obesity epidemic sociologically?individuals? choices
about food and fitness are made in social and economic
environments that profoundly affect those choices; and
? imagine creative, constructive responses to health problems.
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
14
Chapter 15
Work, Consumption, and the
Economy
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
2
Learning Objectives
? Describe the three major economic revolutions that
have shaped the contemporary world.
? Discuss current and potential effects of automation
and artificial intelligence on the labor market.
? Compare the economic characteristics of capitalism
and communism.
? Distinguish between the formal and informal economy.
? Describe historical and contemporary trends in U.S.
consumption and consumer debt.
? Discuss the relationship between globalization and the
U.S. economy.
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
3
The Economy in Historical
Perspective (1 of 3)
? Economy
? Goods and services
? The Industrial Revolution and industrial society
? Reserve army of labor
? Scientific management
? Classes in industrial capitalism
? The information revolution and postindustrial society
? Automation and flexible production
? Automation
? Reliance on outsourcing and offshoring
? Transformation of the occupational and class structure
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
4
The Economy in Historical
Perspective (2 of 3)
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
5
The Economy in Historical
Perspective (3 of 3)
? Emotional labor: Commodification of emotions,
management of feeling to create observable
display
? Forced to feign positive feelings even when such
feelings are absent, labor to evoke positive
feelings in their customers
? Emotive dissonance: Disconnect between what
the worker really feels and the emotions to be
shown or suppressed
? Example: Flight attendants, servers, customer
service, and retail workers
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
6
The Technological Revolution and
the Future of Work
? Big names, few workers: Digital
networking companies in the
contemporary economy
? Rise of the robots?
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
7
Types of Economic Systems
? Capitalism
? Private sector versus public sector
? Communism
? Socialism
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
8
Working On and Off the Books
? Work: Any human effort that adds some value
to goods and services available to others
? Paid labor in factory or office
? Unpaid labor at home
? Volunteer work in the community
? For most of history, work not paid in monetary
terms
? Barter economy: Based on exchange of
goods and services rather than money
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
9
Formal Economy
? All work-related activities that provide
income, regulated by government agencies
? Wage and salary work; self-employment
? Government as regulator of formal economy
? Businesses must register with governmental
entities; report to IRS
? Regulate wages, conditions, health and safety,
environmental effects, product quality, and so on
? 63.6% in labor force; 4.7% unemployed
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
10
Informal Economy
? All income-generating activities not reported to
government as required by law.
? Illegal: Guns, pirating, drug and sex trafficking
? Not illegal but unreported: Garage sales, eBay,
domestics, and babysitters
? Unlicensed sweatshop factories
? Often low-income, female, immigrant
? Lack protections: Health care, unemployment
? ?Shadow economies? larger in developing
countries
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
11
Consumers, Consumption, and
American Economy
? Advanced capitalist states rely on consumption
economy.
? Seventy percentage of U.S. economy linked to
consumption
? Means of consumption: Commodities that possess
a form in which they enter individual consumption
of capitalist and working class.
? Subsistence consumption: Working class
? Luxury consumption: Capitalist class
? Based on Marxist ideas
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
12
Theorizing Means of Consumption
? George Ritzer means of consumption: Things
that make it possible for people to acquire
goods and services; same people controlled
and exploited as consumers
? ?Re-enchantment? of a disenchanted,
rationalized world through spectacle and
simulation
? Example: Disney World
? Consumer must believe that they ?need?
certain goods
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
13
Historical Consumption Perspective
? Political, social, and economic creation
? World War II: Citizen-consumers asked to serve
greater good by reducing consumption
? 9/11: Citizen-consumers encouraged to spend
more money to stimulate economy
? Growth of consumption driven by comparison to
reference groups
? Friends, neighbors, colleagues, and media
? ?Basic bargain? between worker and employer
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
14
Rise of Credit and Debt
? Consumption driven by growing credit
markets even during wage stagnation
? 2015: U.S. consumers US$733 billion in credit
card debt
? Average household credit card debt
US$15,762
? Bankruptcies declining, car debt common
? Auto loans in 2015 added up US$1 trillion
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
15
Globalization and the New Economic
Order
?
?
?
?
?
Interwoven with other country economies
Goods made, sold, and bought in foreign markets
Economic integration can be shallow or deep
Global competition for jobs and wages
Race to the bottom: Low labor costs, no
unionization, deregulation, and subsidies
? Global wage: Lowest worldwide cost of obtaining
labor for a particular task
? Corporate executive salaries skyrocket
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
16
Why Study Economic Systems and
Trends?
? U.S. economy has experienced dramatic
changes?loss of manufacturing, decreased
unionization, growth of service sector,
stagnating wages, advances in computer
technology, and movement of jobs.
? Understanding past and present economic
patterns and trends is critical to gain
perspective on how to prepare for our
economic future.
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
17
Chapter 12
Education and Society
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, 2020.
2
Learning Objectives
? Describe the historical and contemporary roles of education in
society.
? Apply conflict, functionalist, and symbolic interactionist
theoretical perspectives to the institution of education.
? Explain how education may function to both reduce and
reproduce social inequalities.
? Discuss key issues in U.S. higher education, including the
relationship between education and income potential, the
debate over college internships, and the college dropout
phenomenon.
? Learn about the importance of higher education globally and
the growth of U.S. student contact with other students from
around the world.
Chambliss, Discover Sociology, 4e. ? SAGE Publishing, ?

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